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Table 2 Distribution of controls and cases and controls of severe maternal morbidity according to selected socio-demographic and clinical factors

From: Severe maternal morbidity: a case-control study in Maranhao, Brazil

Distal and intermediate variables Cases Controls χ2 OR (95% IC) p - value
  n (%) n (%)    
Age  
20-34 80 (65.6) 174 (71.3)   1.00  
<20 18 (14.8) 54 (22.1)   0.73 (0.40-1.32)  
≥35 24 (19.7) 16 (6.6)   3.26 (1.64-6.48)  
    15.43   <0.001
Per capita monthly income  
Upper tertile 30 (24.6) 79 (32.4)   1.00  
Middle tertile 39 (3.0) 88 (36.1)   1.17 (0.66-2.05)  
Lower tertile 49 (40.2) 69 (28.3)   1.87 (1.07-3.26)  
Not informed* 4 (3.3) 8 (3.3)    
    5.61   0.06
Previous hypertension  
No 106 (86.9) 232 (95.1)   1,00  
Yes 16 (13.1) 12 (4.9)   2.91 (1.33-6.38)  
    7.74   <0.01
Age at the first pregnancy (years)  
≥20 66 (54.1) 111 (45.5)   1.00  
16-19 45 (36.9) 94 (38.5)   0.80 (0.50-1.28)  
<16 11 (9.0) 39 (16.0)   0.47 (0.22-0.98)  
    4.39   0.11
Previous abortion  
No 80 (65.6) 187 (76.6)   1.00  
Yes 42 (34.4) 57 (23.4)   1.72 (1.06-2.77)  
    5.04   0.03
Physical activity during gestation period (leisure time)  
No activity 93 (76.2) 160 (65.6)   1.00  
1-2 x week 15 (12.3) 44 (18.0)   0.58 (0.31-1.11)  
≥ 3 x week 14 (11.5) 40 (16.4)   0.60 (0.31-1.16)  
    4.33   0.11
  1. * The missing information was not considered for the assessment of χ2.
  2. São Luis, Brazil, 2009.