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Table 3 Themes and categories from the interviews with women N = 40

From: Women’s well-being and reproductive health in Indian mining community: need for empowerment



Socio-economic, cultural and environmental well-being

Not having enough money

Not having the basic necessities of life

Less work opportunities

Loss of agricultural fields

Husbands are not financially support family

No education for self and children

Lack of clean water, sanitation, firewood, open spaces, forest produce

Women’s status, role and well-being

Gender differences/ inequality

Performing socially constructed roles

Less attention to self

Inability to make reproductive health choices

Feeling of powerlessness and isolation

Less freedom of choice and mobility

Health, gender preference and cultural well-being

Susceptibility of acute and chronic illness

Illness and dependence on medications

Psychological stress and anxiety

Gender preference

Unable to obtain or use information

Difficulties in obtaining help/ access to healthcare

Marital relationship, support and decision-making well-being

Wife beating

Family disharmony/stress

Poor marital relationship

Strained relationship with in-laws


No hope for the future