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Table 3 Social factors identified in relation to facility-based delivery rates in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Drivers and deterrents of facility delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Social factor Country in which it was studied Direction of Influence Cites
Non-male household head Kenya Increased likelihood of FBD [59]
Husband's occupation Kenya; Nigeria Non-farmers have higher rates of FBD [18, 59]
Husband / partner's education Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Nigeria Greater husband's education, greater FBD [17, 27, 46]
Small family norm (community level) Nigeria Small family norm linked to greater use of SBA [33]
Stigma / risk of gossip / onlookers Uganda FBD puts women at risk of gossip, stigma, social devaluation [67]
Living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood Nigeria Linked to lower likelihood of FBD [17]
Permission from husband, TBA, mother, or mother-in-law Gambia Needing permission linked to lower likelihood of FBD [68]
Social influence of others Tanzania Attitudes of others encourage / discourage FBD rates [61]
Village level: % of village who agree that FBD is important Tanzania Higher percent linked to greater FBD rates [60]
Village level: % of village who rated local facility as "excellent" Tanzania Higher percent linked to greater FBD rates; Unrelated in Mills study [60, 65]
Village level: % of village who attended 4+ ANC visits Tanzania Higher percent linked to greater FBD rates [60]
Village level: % of village who agreed doctors and nurses have good skills Tanzania Higher percent agreeing linked to higher FBD [60]
Village level: % of village who agreed TBAs have good skills Tanzania Higher percent agreeing TBAs have good skills linked to lower utilization of FBD [60]
Community perception of access to nearest facility Ghana Higher perception of access linked to higher FBD rates [65]
Traditional views on delivery and motherhood Swaziland More traditional views yield lower FBD rates [66]