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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies and their assessment of exposure

From: The effects of pregnancy intention on the use of antenatal care services: systematic review and meta-analysis

No Author Country Design Sample Exposure assessment Response rate Confounders adjusted
1 Cheng, 2009 USA CS 9048 women 2 - 9 months postpartum 71% Maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, Medicaid status and parity.
2 Eggleston, 2000 Ecuador CS 3988 women Women with a pregnancy in the 2 years before the survey interviewed 96.4% Age, SES, residence, education, number of previous pregnancies
3 Bassani, 2009 Brazil CS 611 women Postpartum period 100% Age, income, education, skin color, parity, satisfaction with pregnancy
4 Magadi, 2000 Kenya CS 6115 women Five years prior to the survey NR Region/ethnicity, work status, SES, birth order, use of family planning
5 Marston, 2003 5 DHS countries CS 45,121 women (5 countries) Five years prior to the survey NR Birth order, education, wealth, place of residence
6 Pagnini, 2000 USA CS 91,585 women Medical records of women NR Race, age, year, psychosocial and behavioral variables
7 Haghpeykar, 2005 USA CS 300 women Interviewed during pregnancy 90% Age, education, income, previous pregnancies, marital status
8 Rodrı’guez, 1997 Spain CS 409 women Women admitted for delivery 100% Social class, education, previous pregnancy, occupation
9 Raghupathy, 1997 Thailand CS 2754 Women with a birth in the 5 years before the survey NR Education, age of mother, income, religion, birth order
10 Braveman, USA CS 3071 women Interviewed during delivery stays in Hospitals NR Income, age, education, birth order, race/ethnicity, medical coverage
11 Hulsey, 2000 USA Historical cohort 1,989 women Interview as part of cycle V of NSFG NR Age, ethnicity, parity, marital status, income, education, employment
12 Marsiglio, 1988 USA Prospective panel 6,286 women Interview annually from 1979 - 1988 95.7% Age, race, residence, education
13 D’Angelo, 2004 USA CS 25,027 women Women interviewed for the 1998 PRAMS NR Age, marital status, education, race, parity, Medicaid coverage,
14 Waller, USA CS 4,898 women Women and their partners interviewed 83% Child sex, parental education, parent’s age, parental race/ethnicity, fertility history
15 Biratu, 2000 Ethiopia CS 1,750 women Women with a live birth in 12 months before the survey date 100% Education, age, ethnicity, religion, parity, union type and husband approval
16 Joyce, 2000 USA CS 4415 women Late PNC 91% Child’s sex, mother’s education, region, residence, race/ethnicity
17 Gage, 1998 Kenya & Nambia CS 6052 & 3877 Women with a birth in the 5 years before the survey NR Education, residence, distance to the nearest health facility , ethnicity
18 Hohmann-Marriott New Zealand CS 5788 Interview as 1st round of Longitudinal data NR Age, education, race/ethnicity, SES, parity and twin status
19 Tariku, 2010 Ethiopia CS 630 women Interview during prenatal care 97.1% Education, parity, means of confirming pregnancy, previous ANC
20 Orr, 2008 USA CS 913 women Interview after child birth NR Age, education, race/ethnicity, SES, parity
21 Mayor, 1997 USA Cohort 2032 women Questionnaire to women who delivered in a facility 70% Maternal age, education, parity, race, and insurance status
22 Sable , 1998 USA Case control 2,828 women 3 months postpartum 75% Maternal age, race, education, Medicaid eligibility, marital status
23 Altfeld, 1998 USA Cohort 380 women Interview during pregnancy & Postpartum 99% Age, race, education, Medicaid, marital status
24 Barrick, 2008 India Cohort study 3666 women Interview before conception & after child birth 81.1% Age, parity, education, asset ownership, autonomy
25 Humbert, 2010 USA CS 478 women Interviewed during Postpartum Hospital visit NR Age, race, ethnicity, marital status, and parity
26 Weller, 1987 USA CS/OBS 7,825 women Women with a live birth in 1980 interviewed NR Maternal race residence, and education
27 Behailu, 2009 Ethiopia CS 620 women Women who had alive birth in the last year Interviewed 96% Age, education, residence, ethnicity, marital status
28 Martin, 2007 USA CS 5404 women & partners Interview with women and their partners 76.1% Maternal education, race/ethnicity, marital status, age at birth, household income, employment
29 Potter, 2009 USA prospective 667 women Interview with women in prenatal care NR Age, race, education, social support and perceived health status
30 Jeffery, 1997 USA CS 2032 Interview with women coming to delivery NR Education, marital status, race, parity
31 Abosie Z., 2009 Ethiopia CS 691 Women with birth in last 5 years interviewed 97.3% Parity, number of pregnancies, experience of abortion, still birth , distance from health facility
32 Fenta M., 2005 Ethiopia CS 642 Women with births in the 12 months before survey 100% Age, education, ethnicity, marital status, religion, family size
  1. Cs = cross-sectional study.