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Table 2 Demographics and clinical characteristics of the study cohorts

From: Medicaid spending on contraceptive coverage and pregnancy-related care

  Index contraceptive   
Patient characteristics SARC LARC Pregnancy cohort n = 97,972
  OC n = 115,873 Transdermal n = 11,577 Vaginal ring n = 7,970 Injectable n = 29,817 IUD n = 37,767 Implant n = 6,526  
Demographics at index date        
 Age, years, mean (±SD) [Median] 22.7 (7.0) [21] 22.3 (6.4) [21] 24.0 (5.6) [23] 22.6 (7.2) [21] 24.9 (5.6) [24] 21.7 (5.1) [21] 23.3 (6.7) [21]
Age distribution, years, n (%)        
 14-16 yrs 22,626( 19.5%) 2,145 (18.5%) 378 (4.7%) 6,037 (20.2%) 491 (1.3%) 871 (13.3%) 10,158 (10.4%)
 17-19 yrs 24,784 (21.4%) 2,555 (22.1%) 1,306 (16.4%) 6,332 (21.2%) 4,278 (11.3%) 1,575 (24.1%) 27,917 (28.5%)
 20-24 yrs 30,136 (26.0%) 3,275 (28.3%) 3,110 (39.0%) 8,112 (27.2%) 16,480 (43.6%) 2,559 (39.2%) 24,194 (24.7%)
 25-29 yrs 19,451 (16.8%) 2,039 (17.6%) 1,998 (25.1%) 4,627 (15.5%) 9,748 (25.8%) 1,047 (16.0%) 17,864 (18.2%)
 30-34 yrs 10,162 (8.8%) 926 (8.0%) 765 (9.6%) 2,259 (7.6%) 4,028 (10.7%) 297 (4.6%) 10,205 (10.4%)
 35-39 yrs 5,170 (4.5%) 409 (3.5%) 292 (3.7%) 1,342 (4.5%) 1,856 (4.9%) 130 (2.0%) 5,335 (5.4%)
 40-44 yrs 2,487 (2.1%) 171 (1.5%) 97 (1.2%) 744 (2.5%) 668 (1.8%) 36 (0.6%) 1,903 (1.9%)
 45-49 yrs 1,057 (0.9%) 57 (0.5%) 24 (0.3%) 364 (1.2%) 218 (0.6%) 11 (0.2%) 396 (0.4%)
Region, n (%)        
 New Jersey 28,532 (24.6%) 3,754 (32.4%) 2,670 (33.5%) 3,976 (13.3%) 3,414 (9.0%) 196 (3.0%) 31,391 (32.0%)
 Florida 21,518 (18.6%) 2,142 (18.5%) 1,507 (18.9%) 3,102 (10.4%) 11,067 (29.3%) 590 (9.0%) 16,138 (16.5%)
 Missouri 40,641 (35.1%) 3,239 (28.0%) 2,347 (29.4%) 7,381 (24.8%) 12,923 (34.2%) 2,912 (44.6%) 22,716 (23.2%)
 Kansas 7,083 (6.1%) 571 (4.9%) 274 (3.4%) 3,022 (10.1%) 2,801 (7.4%) 328 (5.0%) 4,946 (5.0%)
 Iowa 18,099 (15.6%) 1,871 (16.2%) 1,172 (14.7%) 12,336 (41.4%) 7,562 (20.0%) 2,500 (38.3%) 22,781 (23.3%)
Race, n (%)        
 White 72,948 (63.0%) 5,669 (49.0%) 4,186 (52.5%) 13,168 (44.2%) 22,335 (59.1%) 3,534 (54.2%) 46,802 (47.8%)
 Black 22,065 (19.0%) 3,723 (32.2%) 2,263 (28.4%) 9,532 (32.0%) 5,914 (15.7%) 1,211 (18.6%) 30,324 (31.0%)
 Latin/Hispanic 9,434 (8.1%) 1,077 (9.3%) 735 (9.2%) 1,430 (4.8%) 4,373 (11.6%) 289 (4.4%) 8,704 (8.9%)
 Others/Unknown 11,426 (9.9%) 1,108 (9.6%) 786 (9.9%) 5,687 (19.1%) 5,145 (13.6%) 1,492 (22.9%) 12,142 (12.4%)
Year of index date, n (%)        
 2005 17,725 (15.3%) 5,209 (45.0%) 702 (8.8%) 4,602 (15.4%) 2,724 (7.2%) 14 (0.2%) 14,641 (14.9%)
 2006 22,251 (19.2%) 2,201 (19.0%) 1,548 (19.4%) 5,977 (20.0%) 4,738 (12.5%) 32 (0.5%) 18,464 (18.8%)
 2007 24,927 (21.5%) 1,529 (13.2%) 1,919 (24.1%) 6,158 (20.7%) 7,790 (20.6%) 696 (10.7%) 20,609 (21.0%)
 2008 27,136 (23.4%) 1,393 (12.0%) 1,934 (24.3%) 6,532 (21.9%) 11,813 (31.3%) 2,186 (33.5%) 24,030 (24.5%)
 2009 16,850 (14.5%) 890 (7.7%) 1,339 (16.8%) 4,750 (15.9%) 7,208 (19.1%) 2,287 (35.0%) 14,335 (14.6%)
 2010 6,984 (6.0%) 355 (3.1%) 528 (6.6%) 1,798 (6.0%) 3,494 (9.3%) 1,311 (20.1%) 5,893 (6.0%)
Charlson comorbidity index 1 , n (%)        
 0 103,869 (89.6%) 10,576 (91.4%) 7,222 (90.6%) 26,381 (88.5%) 34,189 (90.5%) 6,031 (92.4%) 89,246 (91.1%)
 1 10,013 (8.6%) 832 (7.2%) 656 (8.2%) 2,646 (8.9%) 3,070 (8.1%) 436 (6.7%) 7,054 (7.2%)
 2 1,348(1.2%) 109 (0.9%) 60 (0.8%) 474 (1.6%) 363 (1.0%) 36 (0.6%) 972 (1.0%)
 3 299 (0.3%) 17 (0.1%) 13 (0.2%) 118 (0.4%) 70 (0.2%) 12 (0.2%) 234 (0.2%)
 4 72 (0.1%) 9 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 36 (0.1%) 21 (0.1%) 2 (0.0%) 66 (0.1%)
 5 or more 272 (0.2%) 34 (0.3%) 19 (0.2%) 162 (0.5%) 54 (0.1%) 9 (0.1%) 400 (0.4%)
Other comorbidities 1 , n (%)        
 Cardiovascular diseases 2,737 (2.4%) 215 (1.9%) 179 (2.2%) 823 (2.8%) 1,135 (3.0%) 153 (2.3%) 1,607 (1.6%)
 Hypertension 3,125 (2.7%) 202 (1.7%) 199 (2.5%) 974 (3.3%) 1,246 (3.3%) 134(2.1%) 2,182 (2.2%)
 Diabetes 2,705 (2.3%) 192 (1.7%) 150 (1.9%) 697 (2.3%) 1,037 (2.7%) 97 (1.5%) 1,703 (1.7%)
 Pelvic inflammatory disease 8,851 (7.6%) 945 (8.2%) 843 (10.6%) 2,511 (8.4%) 3,704 (9.8%) 475 (7.3%) 7,350 (7.5%)
 Alcohol 697 (0.6%) 49 (0.4%) 42 (0.5%) 270 (0.9%) 161 (0.4%) 30 (0.5%) 753 (0.8%)
 Smoking 5,630 (4.9%) 539 (4.7%) 546 (6.9%) 2,035 (6.8%) 3,206(8.5%) 549 (8.4%) 2,945(3.0%)
Parous status 2 , n (%) 50,312 (43.4%) 5,072 (43.8%) 4,541 (57.0%) 13,709 (46.0%) 31,802 (84.2%) 4,204 (64.4%) 2,998 (3.1%)
Baseline healthcare payments 1 , dollars, mean (±SD)       
 Inpatient services $1,615 (4,453) $1,411 (4,133) $1,634 (3,344) $1,554 (4,482) $2,648 (3,770) $1,774 (3,295) $169 (3,021)
 Outpatient $1,574 (4,524) $1,413 (4,279) $1,106 (2,009) $1,856 (4,947) $1,539 (1,796) $1,469 (1,930) $872 (2,461)
 Long-term care3 services $78 (2,919) $32 (1,810) $0 (6) $56 (1,881) $14 (1,142) $0 (18) $29 (1,697)
 Emergency room services $37 (161) $36 (138) $30 (114) $49 (190) $34 (126) $46 (161) $40 (227)
 Pharmacy $298 (1,554) $221 (924) $181 (919) $302 (1,409) $170 (750) $317 (927) $204 (1,031)
 Total payments $3,602 (7,598) $3,113 (6,951) $2,951 (4,236) $3,818 (7,826) $4,405 (4,560) $3,606 (4,269) $1,315 (4,914)
Observation period 4 , days, mean (±SD) 317 (91) 324 (88) 316 (90) 325 (90) 265 (133) 305 (101) 337 (63)
  1. Notes: SARC: short-acting reversible contraceptive; LARC: long-acting reversible contraceptive; OC: oral contraceptive; IUD: intrauterine device.
  2. 1. Based on a period of 180 days prior to index date.
  3. 2. Identified by claims with ICD-9-CM codes for delivery any time prior to the index date. The mother status, available in FL, was also used to identify parous status, as well as the family ID in NJ.
  4. 3. Identified with service claims for long-term care, skilled nursing facility, intermediate care facility, and swing beds.
  5. 4. From the index date to the earliest date between end of eligibility, end of data availability, or 12 months after the index date.