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Table 3 Associated factors for domestic violence (N = 2466)

From: Shadow of domestic violence and extramarital sex cohesive with spousal communication among males in Nepal

Characteristic Crude odds ratios with 95% confidence interval Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval
Age above 25 years 1.09 (.88 – 1.34) 1.59 (1.18 – 2.16)** d
Age 24 years & below -Ref   
Education secondary or higher 2.33 (1.90 - 2.84)* 1.68 (1.35 - 2.09)* c
Uneducated or primary level- Ref   
Income 5001 NPR or above 2.19 (1.85- 2.59)* 1.78 (1.42-2.21)* d
5000 NPR or less/month- Ref   
Formal employment 2.23 (1.89 - 2.64)* 1.68 (1.34 - 2.09)* d
Informal or no employment - Ref   
Non-Indigenous ethnicity 2.23 (1.75 - 2.83)* 1.70 (1.30 - 2.23)* d
Indigenous ethnicity - Ref   
≥ 3 Children .54 (.44 - .67)* .60 (.48 - .75)* d
≤ 2 Children - Ref   
  1. *P < 0.001, **P < 0.05.
  2. cAdjusted with education, age, ethnicity, no. of children.
  3. dAdjusted with age, income, employment, ethnicity, no. of children.