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Table 5 Associated factor for spousal communication (N = 2394)

From: Shadow of domestic violence and extramarital sex cohesive with spousal communication among males in Nepal

Characteristic Crude odds ratios with 95% confidence interval Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval
Income 5001 NPR or above .60 (.51- .70)* 1.22 (.98-1.52)c
5000 NPR or less/month- Ref   
Education secondary or higher .28 (.23- .34)* .33 (.26-.41)*c
Uneducated or Primary level- Ref   
Formal employment .36 (.31-.43)* .65 (.52-.82)*c
Informal or no employment - Ref   
Hindu religion .27 (.20- .36)* .50 (.35-.72)*c
Non-Hindu - Ref   
Non-Indigenous ethnicity .35 (.27-.44)* .75 (.56-1.02)c
Indigenous ethnicity - Ref   
≥ 3 Children 1.32 (1.09- 1.59)** 1.30 (1.04- 1.61)**c
≤ 2 Children - Ref
Desire more children 2.67 (2.13- 3.34)* 3.00 (2.32- 3.90)*c
No more desire - Ref   
Extramarital sexual relation 1.00 (.84- 1.19) .79 (.64- .97)**c
No relation - Ref   
Associated factors for wife’s approval to use contraceptive (N = 2394)
Age above 25 years 2.37 (1.44-3.90)* 4.47 (2.21-9.03)*a
Age 24 years & below -Ref   
Income 5001 NPR or above 1.72 (1.27 - 2.33)* 1.52 (1.12-2.07)**b
5000 NPR or less/month- Ref   
Education secondary or higher 7.53 (3.83-14.80)* 5.14 (2.57 -10.27)*a
Uneducated or Primary level- Ref   
Hindu religion 2.79 (1.41-5.52)** 2.5 (1.12-5.71)**a
Non-Hindu - Ref   
Non-Indigenous ethnicity 1.28 (.84-1.95) .51 (.30- .87)**a
Indigenous ethnicity - Ref   
≥ 3 Children .13 (.07-.26)* .14 (.07- .27)*a
≤ 2 Children - Ref   
Desire more children .80 (.52-1.22) .67 (.42-1.06)a
No more desire - Ref   
  1. *P < 0.001, **P < 0.05.
  2. bAdjusted with age, income, religion.
  3. aAdjusted with age, education, religion, desire of children, ethnicity, no. of children.
  4. cAdjusted with income, education, employment, religion, ethnicity, desire of children, extra marital sexual relation, no. of children.