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Table 5 Characteristics of the reviews included for Information System

From: Evidence from district level inputs to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health: interventions and findings

Reviews (n=15) Description of included interventions Type of Studies included (no) Targeted Health care Providers Outcome reported Pooled Data (Y/N) Results
     Other outcomes MNH specific outcomes   
Black 2011[52] The researchers divided e-Health technologies into three main categories: (1) storing, managing, and transmission of data; (2) clinical decision support; and (3) facilitating care from a distance. 53 systematic reviews Various health care professionals Patient outcomes Electronic prescribing No Weak to moderate effect (10 out of a total of 26 studies)
      Aassociated computerised provider (or physician) order entry systems   6 out of a total of 6 studies showed no benefit
Gagnon 09[65] Any type of intervention to promote the adoption and use of any type of Information Communication Technology (ICT) (electronic medical record, telemedicine/ tele-health, health information networks, decision support tools, Internet-based technologies and services). RCT: 09
ITS: 01
healthcare professionals, residents, fellows, and other registered healthcare professionals in HIC Information and communication technology adoption   No Small to moderate positive effect on adoption (4/10)
        No significant positive effect (4/10)
        Mixed effect (2/10)
Hayrinen 08[58] Electronic health records: definitions, structure, context, access, purpose and methods 89 papers Health care professionals in HIC Electronic health records: definitions, structure, context, access, purpose and methods   No Narrative
Irani 09[60] Use of Electronic health record system in outpatient and office setting Cross-sectional: 03
Pre-post: 04
(meta-analyzed: 03)
Physicians in HIC Patient satisfaction   Yes 3.7% (2.9-5.2%)
McGowan 09[61] Provision and access to electronically retrievable health records at point of healthcare delivery and training component cRCT’s: 02 Physicians, nurses and midwives in HIC Professional behavior   No No significant change (2/2)
     Improvement in knowledge    Improved knowledge (1/2)
Ballas 1997 (electronic communication)[51] Distance technology applications were described in 6 categories: computerized communication, telephone follow-up and counseling, telephone reminders, interactive telephone systems, after-hours telephone access, and telephone screening. 80 clinical trials General healthcare providers Computerized communication: Clinical outcomes for diabetes, Alzheimer’s and cardiac diseases   No HbA 1c decreased (4/4)
Insignificant changes in other outcomes
     Telephonic follow-up: ED visits    Significant improvements in keeping appointment, compliance, follow-up care, satisfaction
     Cardiac care    Significant improvement in smoking cessation, exercise, general activity, knowledge
      Mammography use   Significant increase in no of mammograms (Range: 14%-25%)
     Osteoarthritis    Significant improvement in AIMS score
     Tobacco use prevention    Significant decrease of 8.3%
     Appointment keeping rates    Appointment kept or responsibly cancelled (5/6)
      Immunization rates   Significant increase (Range: 6.4%-27.2%)
     Medication compliance    Significant improvement in compliance events and pharmacy score
     Diabetic foot care    Significant improvement in Serious foot lesions, dry or cracked skin, ingrown toenails and fungal nail infections
     Osteoarthritis    Significant improvement in physical disability and pain
Bunn 04/ Bunn 05 (tele consultation)[53, 54] All designated telephone consultation systems where patients calls are received, assessed and managed by giving advice or by referral to a more appropriate service. This included those with and without computer based clinical decision support systems RCT: 05
ITS: 03
healthcare providers in HIC Visit to GP’s   No Significant reduction (3/5)
     Visits to A&E department    No difference (6/7), significant increase (1/7)
     Hospital admissions    Reduction in hospital admissions (2/2)
     Home visit    No significant reduction (1/1)
     Out of hours contact    Small significant increase (1/2)
     Patient satisfaction    
Car 11[55] Online health literacy RCT: 01
CBA: 01
All patients/ consumers Self-efficacy for health information seeking   No 1.10 points higher in intervention group
     Health information evaluation skills    0.60 points higher in intervention group
     # of times pt. discussed online    0.7 times higher in intervention group
Currell 00 (telemedicine)[56] Studies which compare the provision of patient care face to face with care given using telecommunications technologies, in which at least two communication media are used interactively (e.g. video consultation between hospital consultant and general practitioner). Trials: 07 Qualified healthcare practitioners from any discipline in HIC Measurable difference in outcome of care   No No unequivocal benefit (7/7)
     Economic consequence    
     Acceptability of care    
     Difference in professional practice    
     Difference in transfer of care    
Grilli 02 Mass media ITS: 20 Healthcare providers patients and general public Effectiveness   No Effective in improving healthcare utilization (7/7 studies)
Heselmans 09[59] An electronic guideline implementation method was defined as an electronic system directly supporting evidence-based clinical decision making in which point-of care advice is provided based on one or more CPGs 20 cRCT, 1 CCT, 2 CBA physicians Patient outcomes   No 7/23 studies had >50% of the process outcomes significantly improved
     Process outcomes    
Mistiaen 06 (telephone follow-ups)[62] Telephone follow-up (TFU) initiated by a hospital-based health professional (medical, nursing, social work, pharmaceutical) to a patient who is discharged to his/her own home setting (including a relative’s home). 33 RCT’s and controlled trials hospital based healthcare professional in HIC Compliance in cardiac surgery patients    1.68 [0.59, 4.78]
     Compliance in ED patients (making an appointment)    1.68 [0.59, 4.78]
     Compliance in ED patients (keeping an appointment)    1.58 [1.01, 2.48]
     Effect on knowledge in cardiac patients    1.44 [-0.25, 3.13]
     Effect on readmission(cardiac patients)    0.75 [0.41, 1.36]
     Effect on readmission in surgery patients    0.65 [0.28, 1.55]
     ED visits in surgery patients    1.47 [0.85, 2.53]
Noordam 11[19] The potential of mobile phones to improve maternal health services in Low and Middle Income Countries Projects LMIC Accessing emergency obstetric care, improving the capacity of lesser trained health workers, empowering women   No Narrative
Shiffman 99[63] Computer based guideline implementation RCT: 9,
NRCT: 01
time series: 10,
clinicians and other information providers in HIC Guideline adherence   No Improved in 14 of 18 studies
     Documentation    Improved in 4 of 4 studies.
Tan 12 (telemedicine)[64] Telemedicine technology focused on education and support to the parents or caretakers of newborn infants receiving intensive care. 1 RCT NICU staff in Indonesia   Length of hospital stay Yes -2.10 (-18.85-14.65)