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Table 3 Antenatal and delivery characteristics by maternal status at 6 weeks

From: Risk factors for maternal death and trends in maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries: a prospective longitudinal cohort analysis

Characteristic n(%)* RR of maternal death versus alive at six weeks (95% CI)
  Women who died
n=402
Women alive six weeks after delivery
n=277,334
Total
n=277,736
 
No antenatal care 29 (7.4) 10,640 (3.8) 10,669 (3.9) 1.7 (1.2, 2.5)
Fewer than 4 antenatal care visits 94 (59.1) 72,527 (48.4) 72,621 (48.4) 1.5 (1.1, 2.2)
Birth attendant     
Physician 148 (46.8) 106,671 (38.5) 106,819 (38.5) 1.0
Nurse/midwife/health worker 69 (21.8) 88,243 (31.8) 88,312 (31.8) 0.5 (0.4, 0.7)
Traditional birth attendant 66 (20.9) 63,817 (23.0) 63,883 (23.0) 0.6 (0.4, 0.8)
Family/other 33 (10.4) 18,558 (6.7) 18,591 (6.7) 1.1 (0.8, 1.7)
Delivery location     
Hospital 169 (53.3) 126,426 (45.6) 126,595 (45.6) 1.0
Clinic 52 (16.4) 68,629 (24.8) 68,681 (24.7) 0.5 (0.4, 0.7)
Home/other 96 (30.3) 82,197 (29.6) 82,293 (29.6) 0.7 (0.6, 1.0)
Delivery mode     
Vaginal 222 (71.4) 230,853 (86.1) 231,075 (86.1) 1.0
Vaginal assisted 15 (4.8) 4,145 (1.5) 4,160 (1.6) 3.4 (1.8, 6.6)
Caesarean section 74 (23.8) 32,973 (12.3) 33,047 (12.3) 2.4 (1.8, 3.2)
Obstructed labor 79 (20.4) 29,735 (10.7) 29,814 (10.8) 2.0 (1.6, 2.6)
Fetal Malposition 27 (7.1) 5,879 (2.1) 5,906 (2.1) 3.4 (2.3, 5.0)
Antepartum hemorrhage 46 (11.9) 6,089 (2.2) 6,135 (2.2) 5.7 (3.7, 8.8)
Hypertensive disorders 78 (20.5) 8,039 (2.9) 8,117 (2.9) 8.4 (6.3, 11.2)
Maternal treatment provided     
Antibiotics 173 (52.9) 103,941 (37.7) 104,114 (37.8) 2.1 (1.7, 2.7)
Corticosteroids 12 (9.4) 6,060 (5.3) 6,072 (5.3) 1.8 (0.9, 3.5)
Oxytocics (including misoprostol) 140 (43.3) 108,524 (39.5) 108,664 (39.5) 1.2 (1.0, 1.6)
Blood transfusion 92 (28.3) 3,889 (1.4) 3,981 (1.4) 26.6 (19.7, 36.0)
Removal of retained products 42 (12.9) 15,799 (5.7) 15,841 (5.7) 2.7 (1.7, 4.3)
Anticonvulsants 31 (9.7) 3,288 (1.2) 3,319 (1.2) 8.9 (5.6, 14.0)
IV Fluids 188 (57.5) 93,590 (33.9) 93,778 (34.0) 2.9 (2.2, 3.7)
Forceps/vacuum 13 (4.0) 1,913 (0.7) 1,926 (0.7) 5.6 (3.1, 10.0)
Other surgery/treatment 24 (7.4) 10,891 (4.0) 10,915 (4.0) 2.1 (1.3, 3.3)
  1. * The denominator used to determine the percentage of women with each characteristic varies due to missing data.
  2. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship of potential factors and maternal mortality and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals. Unless otherwise noted, the reference group is women who did not have the listed characteristic.