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Table 2 Antenatal and delivery care characteristics and risk of stillbirth, 2010-2013

From: Stillbirth rates in low-middle income countries 2010 - 2013: a population-based, multi-country study from the Global Network

  Stillbirth, N (%) Live birth, N (%) Relative Risk (95% CI)*
ANC Visits    
0 331 (8.2) 3,659 (2.6) 3.0 (2.5, 3.7)
1-2 1,358 (33.5) 25,842 (18.3) 1.0
3+ 2,370 (58.4) 111,554 (79.1) 2.0 (1.7, 2.4)
Syphilis testing received    
Yes 1,917 (25.4) 103,889 (39.9) 1.0
No 5,619 (74.6) 156,282 (60.1) 1.6 (1.5, 1.8)
HIV testing received    
Yes 4,199 (55.6) 195,255 (74.8) 1.0
No 3,359 (44.4) 65,666 (25.2) 2.5 (2.1, 2.9)
Tetanus toxoid vaccine    
Yes 5,352 (70.4) 225,165 (86.1) 1.0
No 2,250 (29.6) 36,396 (13.9) 2.2 (2.0, 2.5)
Birth attendant, N (%)    
Physician 3,155 (41.4) 100,662 (38.4) 1.0
Nurse/Midwife/HW 1,851 (24.3) 86,444 (33.0) 0.6 (0.6, 0.7)
TBA 1,404 (18.4) 62,573 (23.9) 0.5 (0.4, 0.6)
Family/Other 1,202 (15.8) 12,300 (4.7) 2.8 (2.2, 3.5)
Delivery location    
Hospital 3,598 (47.2) 120,433 (46.0) 1.0
Clinic 1,415 (18.6) 66,929 (25.6) 0.6 (0.5, 0.7)
Home/Other 2,609 (34.2) 74,554 (28.5) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
Delivery mode    
Vaginal 6,238 (88.4) 225,418 (86.0) 1.0
Vaginal assisted 282 (4.0) 3,899 (1.5) 2.0 (1.3, 3.1)
C-section 533 (7.6) 32,665 (12.5) 0.6 (0.6, 0.7)
  1. *Relative risk accounted for study cluster (site)