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Table 1 Maternal and Delivery Characteristics of Women Experiencing OL/PL/FTP vs Normal Labor, 2010-2013

From: A prospective population-based study of maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes in the setting of prolonged labor, obstructed labor and failure to progress in low- and middle-income countries

  OL/PL/FTP No OL/PL/FTP RR (95% CI)
Women with deliveries, N* 29,449 237,274  
Maternal age, N (%)    
< 20 3,503 (11.9) 28,713 (12.1) 1.3 (1.2, 1.3)
20-35 24,929 (84.8) 198,840 (83.9) 1.0
> 35 950 (3.2) 9,360 (4.0) 1.0 (0.9, 1.0)
Parity, N (%)    
0 14,074 (48.0) 75,629 (32.0) 1.8 (1.7, 2.0)
1-2 9,436 (32.2) 102,628 (43.4) 1.0
≥3 5,816 (19.8) 58,359 (24.7) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)
Education, N (%)    
No formal education 8,748 (29.8) 57,912 (24.5) 0.7 (0.7, 0.8)
Primary 8,278 (28.2) 92,430 (39.1) 1.0
Secondary 8,996 (30.7) 70,354 (29.8) 1.3 (1.2, 1.3)
University+ 3,311 (11.3) 15,488 (6.6) 1.8 (1.7, 1.9)
Birth weight (measured), N (%)    
< 1500g 140 (0.5) 1,852 (0.8) 0.7 (0.5, 0.8)
1500-2499g 3,194 (12.0) 23,170 (10.5) 1.0 (1.0, 1.1)
2500-3499g 20,349 (76.6) 173,974 (79.0) 1.0
> 3500g 2,894 (10.9) 21,163 (9.6) 1.2 (1.1, 1.3)
Gestational age at delivery, N (%)    
Preterm 2,589 (9.2) 22,182 (9.6) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)
Term 25,683 (90.8) 208,047 (90.4) 1.0
BMI, N (%) 23,857 182,118  
< 18 kg/m2 4,056 (17.0) 32,459 (17.8) 0.8 (0.8, 0.9)
18-25 kg/m2 16,120 (67.6) 124,468 (68.3) 1.0
> 25 kg/m2 3,681 (15.4) 25,191 (13.8) 1.4 (1.3, 1.5)
Delivery mode, N (%)    
Vaginal 12,022 (40.8) 217,381 (91.9) 1.0
Vaginal assisted 1,933 (6.6) 2,194 (0.9) 7.1 (5.1, 9.8)
Cesarean section 15,488 (52.6) 17,061 (7.2) 10.0 (7.8, 12.8)
Birth attendant, N (%)    
Physician 20,133 (68.4) 82,183 (34.6) 18.1 (9.5, 34.3)
Nurse/Midwife/HW 6,558 (22.3) 80,998 (34.2) 5.2 (2.9, 9.4)
TBA/Family/Other 2,754 (9.4) 74,002 (31.2) 1.0
Delivery location, N (%)    
Hospital 21,491 (73.0) 100,822 (42.5) 14.5 (8.3, 25.2)
Clinic 5,376 (18.3) 62,454 (26.3) 4.9 (2.9, 8.5)
Home/Other 2,569 (8.7) 73,869 (31.1) 1.0
  1. *numbers less than the total reflect missing data.