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Table 1 Numbers of women, contraceptive use (ever and current) and high (top quintile) decision and movement autonomy by socio-demographic characteristics.

From: Women's autonomy, education and contraception use in Pakistan: a national study

  Number (%) Contraception ever (%) Contraception currently* (%) Decision autonomy % Movement autonomy %
Total sample 6579 (100) 40.2 28.0 20.0 21.4
Province      
   Punjab 2895 (44.2) 44.8 31.5 24.7 26.6
   Sindh 1791 (27.3) 32.7 24.0 15.8 12.7
   NWFP 1167 (18.1) 43.3 26.4 19.5 15.6
   Balochistan 606 (8.9) 29.9 21.6 6.8 29.2
   Islamabad 120 (1.7) 64.0 48.3 43.3 41.7
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Area      
   Major urban 1524 (23.1) 62.0 47.3 30.4 34.1
   Other urban 1302 (19.8) 46.7 30.4 19.3 22.6
   Rural 3753 (57.1) 29.1 19.4 16.1 15.8
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Married      
   Yes 6361 (96.7) 40.8 28.1 18.5 20.4
   No 218 (3.3) 23.4 23.4 63.8 50.0
p-value   <0.001 0.127 <0.001 <0.001
Age group      
   <19 404 (6.1) 7.7 4.7 6.7 7.4
   20–24 1081 (16.4) 23.7 13.8 11.2 10.9
   25–29 1410 (21.4) 38.9 24.7 16.0 16.4
   30–34 1233 (18.7) 48.7 33.4 21.9 20.9
   35–39 1036 (15.8) 50.5 38.8 26.3 28.1
   40+ 1415 (21.5) 48.5 36.0 28.3 33.8
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Water supply      
   Piped 2310 (35.1) 53.7 38.7 23.7 25.1
   Well in residence 3168 (48.2) 36.0 24.5 19.0 21.0
   Other 110 (16.7) 24.3 15.9 15.2 14.6
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
House construction      
   Katcha 2305 (35.0) 23.9 14.9 14.6 15.8
   Semi-pacca 1673 (25.4) 40.7 26.7 20.8 20.1
   Pacca 1895 (28.8) 55.5 41.1 23.5 26.9
   Flat/house 490 (7.4) 64.4 49.0 32.0 34.3
   Other 216 (3.3) 21.3 15.1 12.5 13.0
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Toilet facility      
   Flush 3258 (49.5) 54.4 39.6 24.7 26.2
   Other in house 1047 (15.9) 33.1 20.5 14.1 15.1
   No facility 2274 (34.6) 23.3 15.0 16.1 17.3
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Education      
   None 4604 (70.0) 32.7 22.1 17.8 18.3
   1–5 yrs 804 (12.2) 48.8 34.2 21.4 23.3
   6–10 yrs 801 (12.2) 63.7 47.0 25.6 31.6
   11+ yrs 370 (5.6) 64.1 46.9 32.4 33.8
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Living children      
   None 869 (13.2) 2.1 0.6 12.2 14.5
   1–2 1747 (26.6) 31.2 20.0 18.0 17.7
   3–4 1884 (28.6) 50.2 34.6 24.2 24.4
   5+ 2079 (31.6) 54.7 40.3 21.2 24.6
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Husband's education      
   None 2561 (38.9) 28.7 19.2 20.7 21.5
   1–5 yrs 1013 (15.4) 37.5 24.3 17.8 16.8
   6–10 yrs 1929 (29.3) 48.4 34.2 19.7 21.1
   11+ yrs 1076 (16.4) 55.5 41.2 21.0 25.9
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Husband works in agriculture**      
   No 5029 (79.0) 44.9 30.9 21.0 22.6
   Yes 1338 (21.0) 25.3 17.9 9.3 12.4
p-value   <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
  1. * among non-pregnant women (n = 6372)
  2. ** among married women = 6361