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Table 2 Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of contraceptive use ever by quintile of decision, movement and combined autonomy score.

From: Women's autonomy, education and contraception use in Pakistan: a national study

Type of autonomy Quintile Crude Adjusted for demographic factors* Fully adjusted**
Contraception use ever
Decision autonomy    
   1 1.0 1.0 1.0
   2 2.16 (1.72–2.70) 1.49 (1.15–1.94) 1.39 (1.06–1.82)
   3 2.98 (2.37–3.74) 1.59 (1.22–2.07) 1.42 (1.08–1.86)
   4 4.88 (3.91–6.09) 2.12 (1.64–2.75) 1.81 (1.38–2.37)
   5 4.82 (3.84–6.04) 1.88 (1.45–2.46) 1.82 (1.37–2.41)
p-value for trend < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Movement autonomy    
   1+2 1.0 1.0 1.0
   3 0.97 (0.80–1.18) 1.23 (1.01–1.51) 1.25 (1.02–1.48)
   4 1.43 (1.16–1.77) 1.51 (1.22–1.88) 1.54 (1.26–1.86)
   5 1.72 (1.45–2.05) 1.14 (0.96–1.36) 1.13 (0.95–1.33)
p-value for trend < 0.001 0.010 0.006
Current contraceptive use
Decision autonomy    
   1 1.0 1.0 1.0
   2 2.36 (1.74–3.20) 1.82 (1.34–2.49) 1.73 (1.26–2.39)
   3 3.16 (2.31–4.33) 1.88 (1.36–2.60) 1.73 (1.25–2.40)
   4 5.34 (3.92–7.26) 2.54 (1.85–3.50) 2.23 (1.61–3.08)
   5 5.04 (3.67–6.92) 2.15 (1.55–2.99) 2.01 (1.44–2.81)
p-value for trend < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Movement autonomy    
   1+2 1.0 1.0 1.0
   3 0.92 (0.75–1.13) 1.13 (0.91–1.39) 1.13 (0.92–1.38)
   4 1.36 (1.09–1.69) 1.29 (1.04–1.60) 1.29 (1.03–1.58)
   5 1.66 (1.39–1.98) 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 1.03 (0.86–1.23)
p-value for trend < 0.001 0.174 0.288
  1. * adjusted for province, urban/rural area of residence, age group and the number of living children
  2. ** adjusted for province, urban/rural area of residence, age group, the number of living children, type of toilet, type of house, type of water supply, education, husband education and husband's occupation in agriculture.