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Table 3 Changes in the odds ratios of current contraceptive use by education after controlling for autonomy, at different levels of adjustment. Percentages in parentheses indicate reduction in odds ratios after adding autonomy into the model.

From: Women's autonomy, education and contraception use in Pakistan: a national study

  Ever use Current use
  Without autonomy Additionally adjusted for... Without autonomy Additionally adjusted for...
   Decision autonomy Movement autonomy Both autonomy scores   Decision autonomy Movement autonomy Both autonomy scores
Crude model 
Education         
   None 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   1–5 yrs 1.96 1.85 (-11%) 1.92 (-4%) 1.83 (-10%) 1.83 1.72 (-13%) 1.79 (-5%) 1.71 (-14%)
   6–10 yrs 3.60 3.32 (-11%) 3.46 (-5%) 3.24 (-14%) 3.12 2.85 (-13%) 2.99 (-6%) 2.80 (-15%)
   11+ yrs 3.66 3.09 (-23%) 3.52 (-5%) 3.04 (-23%) 3.10 2.59 (-24%) 2.98 (-6%) 2.57 (-25%)
Adjusted for demographic factors*
Education         
   None 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   1–5 yrs 2.25 2.21 (-3%) 2.27 (+2%) 2.20 (-4%) 1.93 1.89 (-4%) 1.94 (+1%) 1.90 (-3%)
   6–10 yrs 4.21 4.14 (-2%) 4.22 (0%) 4.11 (-3%) 3.17 3.09 (-4%) 3.18 (0%) 3.11 (-3%)
   11+ yrs 5.35 5.07 (-6%) 5.33 (0%) 5.03 (-7%) 3.69 3.47 (-8%) 3.69 (0%) 3.51 (-7%)
Fully adjusted**
Education         
   None 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
   1–5 yrs 1.65 1.62 (-5%) 1.65 (0%) 1.60 (-8%) 1.43 1.40 (-8%) 1.43 (0%) 1.40 (-8%)
   6–10 yrs 2.81 2.75 (-3%) 2.78 (-2%) 2.69 (-7%) 2.12 2.06 (-5%) 2.11 (-1%) 2.05 (-6%)
   11+ yrs 3.56 3.35 (-8%) 3.51 (-2%) 3.27 (-11%) 2.41 2.27 (-10%) 2.40 (-1%) 2.26 (-11%)
  1. * adjusted for province, urban/rural area of residence, age group and the number of living children
  2. ** adjusted for province, urban/rural area of residence, age group, the number of living children, type of toilet, type of house, type of water supply, education, husband education and husband occupation in agriculture.