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Table 2 Inclusion/exclusion criteria

From: Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research

Criteria Inclusion Exclusion
Date 1970–2006 Pre-1970
Age 11–24 years (11–19 years were the main focus, and studies were only included if data for the 11–19 year age group were shown separately). Studies with focus on populations aged 25 years and over.
Sex Female (or female data presented if studies include males and females). Male only.
Study design Qualitative research (studies which used qualitative data collection methods, include the young women's views in their own words, and have used qualitative methods of analysis).
Interview, focus group, and participant observations studies.
Quantitative research (studies which used quantitative data collection methods, pre-determined or fixed responses, and quantitative methods of analysis).
Editorials, literature reviews, book reviews, bibliographies, resource and policy documents, and methodological papers.
Contraceptive use Uptake, use, non-use, choice or discontinuation of contraceptive use as main focus; user perspectives on individual contraceptive methods (including condom use for pregnancy prevention). Studies focused exclusively on pregnancy, abstinence, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, HIV or other STI prevention, medical contraindications.
Contraceptive methods All non-permanent contraceptive methods (contraceptive pill – combined and progestogen-only, injection, implant, IUD/IUS, male condom, female condom, diaphragm/cap, and spermicides).
Studies on natural or traditional contraceptive methods (withdrawal, natural family planning, and periodic abstinence).
Studies of permanent solutions to fertility control (male and female sterilisation).
Measures and episodes of contraceptive use Studies reporting contraceptive use at any episode (e.g. first or last sexual intercourse), of any timescale (e.g. last month, last three months, last year, ever), of consistent use (e.g. always, sometimes, never), and studies with dichotomous or multiple measures (e.g. any use or methods specified by respondents).  
Locations All countries (studies from developing and developed countries were reviewed separately).  
Language Written in English All other languages
Relevance One quarter to all of the study's results relate to contraceptive use. Less than one quarter of the study's results relate to contraceptive use