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Table 2 Cardiotocography (CTG) recorded variation in basal fetal heart rate (FHR), in the number of fetal movements (FM), in the number of accelerations (A) and in variability of FHR before and after moderate physical exercise in water, according to gestational age (GA).

From: Fetal cardiotocography before and after water aerobics during pregnancy

GA (weeks) Basal FHR (mean ± SD)   
  CTG before CTG after Variation n p
24 - 27 143.8 (± 7.7) 142.5 (± 7.7) -1.38 (± 6.1) 61 0.0821
28 - 31 139.5 (± 7.7) 140.2 (± 8.1) 0.65 (± 7.2) 60 0.4881
32 - 35 139.1 (± 9.6) 139.2 (± 9.3) 0.02 (± 9.0) 64 0.9891
36 - 40 137.3 (± 8.9) 138.8 (± 11.2) 1.41 (±10.0) 58 0.2851
  FM (mean ± SD)   
24 - 27 16.2 (± 12.4) 19.1 (± 18.7) 2.9 (± 13.9) 61 0.2402
28 - 31 20.0 (± 15.6) 21.4 (± 18.5) 1.4 (± 20.2) 60 0.3342
32 - 35 22.9 (± 22.9) 21.8 (± 22.2) -1.0 (± 23.3) 64 0.4782
36 - 40 21.4 (± 17.3) 23.6 (± 21.0) 2.2 (± 22.7) 58 0.6362
  A (mean ± SD)   
24 - 27 3.1 (± 2.6) 3.7 (± 3.0) 0.6 (± 2.4) 61 0.1172
28 - 31 4.6 (± 4.1) 4.9 (± 4.8) 0.4 (± 4.9) 60 0.9832
32 - 35 6.0 (± 5.4) 6.4 (± 4.6) 0.3 (± 5.6) 64 0.6582
36 - 40 7.7 (± 5.8) 8.3 (± 5.8) 0.6 (± 5.5) 58 0.4022
  Variability of FHR (bpm ± SD)   
24 - 27 8.5 (± 3.4) 10.1 (± 5.5) 1.6 (± 4.5) 61 0.011 2
28 - 31 10.0 (± 5.0) 9.7 (± 4.6) -0.3 (± 3.4) 60 0.9302
32 - 35 10.0 (± 5.0) 9.8 (± 5.3) -0.2 (± 4.8) 64 0.7012
36 - 40 9.9 (± 4.7) 10.2 (± 4.8) 0.3 (± 4.8) 58 0.4582
  1. 1 Student's t-test for related samples
  2. 2 Wilcoxon's non-parametric test for related samples
  3. Values ares expressed as means ± Standard Deviation (SD).