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Table 4 Changes in ANC use associated with the intervention

From: Impact of a maternal health voucher scheme on institutional delivery among low income women in Pakistan

  Unadjusted odds ratios
(n = 1,423)
(1)
Adjusted odds ratios
(n = 1,423)
(2)
Exposure to the voucher scheme   
   No exposure (pre-intervention, 2008) 1.00 1.00
   No exposure (post-intervention, 2009) 1.77*** 1.74***
   Not sold voucher booklet (2009) 1.96 1.93
   Sold voucher booklet (2009) 3.07** 4.98***
Program factors unrelated to the voucher scheme   
Travel time to nearest health facility   
   More than five minutes 1.00 1.00
   Five minutes or less 2.00*** 1.81***
Mass media exposure   
   Do not watch television daily 1.00 1.00
   Watch television daily 2.06*** 1.13
Maternal factors   
Mother's age   
   < 24 1.00 1.00
   25-29 1.25* 1.52***
   30-34 1.31 1.81**
   > 34 0.96 1.63*
Parity/Living children   
   1 1.00 1.00
   2 0.83 0.73
   3 0.66 0.49***
   4 0.52*** 0.48***
   5 or more 0.33*** 0.34***
Mother's education   
   None 1.00 1.00
   Any primary 2.21*** 1.73**
   Middle 2.22*** 1.33
   Secondary 5.40*** 2.59***
   Matriculate or higher 10.18*** 3.97***
Household factors   
Wealth quintiles   
   Fifth/poorest 1.00 1.00
   Fourth 1.75** 1.31
   Third 3.31*** 2.24***
   Second 5.43*** 3.11***
   First/least poor 10.33*** 4.38***
Mother's autonomy   
   Low 1.00 1.00
   Medium 1.60** 1.42*
   High 1.32 1.12
R-squared   19.17%
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001