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Table 1 Semen characteristics and reproductive hormone levels at baseline according to body mass index (BMI)

From: Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? results from a cohort of severely obese men

Parameter Body mass index (BMI), kg/m2 Test for trend*
  33.3 - 41.6 ( n = 14)# 41.7 - 46.08 ( n = 14)# 46.1 - 60.9 ( n = 15)# P -value
Sperm concentration (millions/ml)     
   Median (p25, 75) 54 (25, 102) 24 (4, 55) 19 (8, 33) 0.03
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)a, b, d 18 (3, 111) 4 (1, 28) 5 (1, 39) 0.02
Semen volume (ml)     
   Median (p25, 75) 2.9 (2.2, 4.0) 3.5 (2.2, 5.8) 3.3 (2.4, 4.0) 0.92
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)a, b, c, d, e 1.7 (0.8, 3.5) 2.6 (1.3, 5.4) 1.7 (0.7, 4.1) 0.74
Total sperm count (millions)     
   Median (p25, 75) 209 (62, 230) 93 (11, 204) 46 (22, 76) 0.03
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)a, e 70 (32, 156) 31 (11, 90) 23 (9, 56) 0.02
Normal sperm morphology (%)     
   Median (p25, 75) 9 (6, 11) 5 (2, 13) 5 (1, 9) 0.28
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)a, c, d, e 10 (0, 244) 7 (0, 103) 2 (0, 61) 0.04
Motile sperm (%)     
   Median (p25, 75) 73 (64, 77) 57 (43, 71) 55 (40, 67) 0.06
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)h 59 (21, 163) 46 (16, 132) 19 (7, 51) 0.005
DNA fragmentation index, DFI (%)     
   Median (p25, 75) 10 (7, 18) 16 (12, 32) 18 (12, 23) 0.23
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)a, b, d, e, f 9 (4, 19) 12 (6, 25) 10 (4, 24) 0.70
Testosterone (nmol/L)     
   Median (p25, 75) 9.2 (7.8, 11.4) 8.0 (6.4, 11.0) 7.0 (6.0, 8.0) 0.005
   Adjusted mean (95% CI)b, d, e, g 8.7 (5.3, 12.2) 9.1 (6.0, 12.2) 6.3 (2.6, 10.1) 0.04
Estradiol (nmol/L)     
   Median (p25, 75) 0.10 (0.09, 0.15) 0.15 (0.14, 0.17) 0.19 (0.16, 0.23) < 0.005
   Adjusted mean (95% CI)b, d, e, g 0.11 (0.07, 0.16) 0.13 (0.09, 0.17) 0.18 (0.13, 0.23) < 0.005
SHBG (nmol/L)     
   Median (p25, 75) 18.0 (12.4, 22.7) 17.4 (14.7, 25.0) 22.8 (15.2, 27.5) 0.62
   Adjusted mean (95% CI)b, d, e, g 20.5 (13.0, 27.9) 21.5 (14.9, 28.1) 24.2 (16.1, 32.3) 0.07
FSH (IU/L)     
   Median (p25, 75) 2.8 (2.6, 3.7) 4.5 (2.2, 5.9) 3.2 (2.2, 3.4) 0.36
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)b, d, e, g 2.8 (1.7, 4.6) 3.9 (2.5, 6.2) 2.2 (1.3, 3.9) 0.30
LH (IU/L)     
   Median (p25, 75) 3.6 (2.9, 4.6) 4.9 (3.7, 6.8) 3.9 (2.8, 5.2) 0.86
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)b, d, e, g 3.1 (2.0, 4.8) 4.7 (3.1, 7.0) 2.9 (1.8, 4.8) 0.60
Inhibin B (pg/ml)     
   Median (p25, 75) 160 (141, 220) 123 (117, 170) 120 (86, 171) 0.004
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)d, e 156 (94, 257) 128 (84, 195) 110 (64, 188) 0.04
AMH (ng/ml)     
   Median (p25, 75) 3.6 (3.1, 4.3) 2.9 (1.8, 4.0) 3.3 (2.2, 4.9) 0.60
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)b, d, e, g 2.8 (1.7, 4.7) 2.3 (1.5, 3.7) 2.5 (1.4, 4.3) 0.68
Free androgen index (FAI)     
   Median (p25, 75) 59.1 (43.2, 75.8) 45.3 (38.9, 62.8) 33.4 (28.7, 44.0) 0.008
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)b, d, e, g 55.0 (36.3, 73.6) 46.3 (29.7, 62.8) 28.5 (8.3, 48.7) < 0.005
Free testosterone/free estradiol ratio     
   Median (p25, 75) 95.2 (76.8, 108.4) 56.2 (45.8, 82.8) 35.6 (32.0, 56.1) < 0.005
   Adjusted median (95% CI)b, d, g 69.4 (45.7, 105.2) 59.5 (40.0, 88.3) 32.5 (20.8, 51.0) < 0.005
LH/free testosterone ratio     
   Median (p25, 75) 0.07 (0.06, 0.09) 0.10 (0.08, 0.11) 0.10 (0.08, 0.17) 0.005
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)b, d, e, g 0.07 (0.04, 0.10) 0.11 (0.07, 0.17) 0.11 (0.06, 0.18) 0.009
Testis volume (ml)     
   Median (p25, 75) 13.5 (11.0, 14.0) 10.0 (8.0, 17.5) 12.0 (10.0, 15.0) 0.80
   Adjusted back-transformed median (95% CI)a, d, e 8.5 (4.0, 18.5) 8.0 (4.0, 16.0) 10.0 (4.0, 24.0) 0.98
  1. p, percentile; CI, confidence interval. *Trends were tested by Spearman's rank correlation test and multiple linear regression analyses with BMI entered as a continuous explanatory variable. #This number of participants (n) relates to the hormone parameters except for AMH. The numbers in the groups for the following variables are: sperm concentration n = 13, n = 14, n = 14; semen volume n = 13, n = 8, n = 9; total sperm count n = 13, n = 7, n = 10; morphology n = 12, n = 14, n = 14; motility n = 13, n = 14, n = 14; DFI n = 11, n = 14, n = 14; testis volume: n = 5, n = 9, n = 7, AMH n = 13, n = 13, n = 15.
  2. The medians are adjusted for the following: abstinence time (a), current smoking (b), season (c), diseases in the reproductive organs (d), age (e), spillage at semen sampling (f) fever (g) and minutes from ejaculation to start of semen analysis (h).