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Table 2 Differences in knowledge and attitudes towards IUD provision among physicians versus LHVs, providers trained in last three years versus not, network members versus not, experienced providers (> 45 insertions) versus not

From: Clinical training alone is not sufficient for reducing barriers to IUD provision among private providers in Pakistan

  Physician Trained in clinical FP in last 3 years Network member Experienced provider
  Yes
n = 284
No
n = 282
Adjusted1 Odds
Ratio
Yes
n = 354
No
n = 212
Adjusted Odds
Ratio
Yes
n = 415
No
n = 151
Adjusted Odds
Ratio
Yes
n = 463
No
n = 103
Adjusted Odds
Ratio
Knowledge of Multiload % %   % %   % %   % %  
   Knows effectiveness 76.8 79.0   79.6 75.0   78.1 76.8   81.6 63.2 2.53***
   Knows duration of effectiveness 76.1 74.0   77.9 70.4   75.9 72.8   76.5 69.6  
   Has sufficient information to advise 93.9 96.0   98.3 89.6 3.42* 97.6 88.1 3.84** 98.2 82.6 8.26***
   Considers herself expert at insertion 80.6 83.9   86.7 74.6   83.1 80.1   91.6 45.2 12.43***
Appropriate candidates for IUD             
If no contraindications, would
recommend IUD to following women
            
   Nulliparous 11.2 20.6 0.48** 16.9 13.7   17.6 10.6 1.89* 16.2 13.9  
   With one delivery 83.0 87.1   88.1 80.2 1.65* 86.5 80.8   85.6 83.5  
   With 3+ deliveries 97.6 97.4   98.9 95.3   98.8 94.0 3.41* 98.7 93.0 4.63**
   Age 19 or younger 34.1 50.2 0.48*** 39.8 45.3 0.66* 42.7 39.7   42.0 40.9  
   Age 20-24 90.4 93.4   93.8 88.7   92.5 90.1   93.8 84.2 2.48**
   Age 25-29 97.3 94.9   98.3 92.0 4.51** 97.3 92.7   97.1 92.2  
   Age 30-34 94.6 90.8   93.2 92.5   93.2 92.1   94.5 87.0 2.67**
   Age 35-39 76.5 74.6   77.6 72.2   77.5 70.2   78.7 63.5 2.05**
   Age 40 or older 46.3 43.4   44.9 44.6   43.9 47.7   50.6 22.6 3.80***
   Wants children in future 85.7 87.2   87.3 85.0   87.0 85.4   87.6 82.5  
   Had spontaneous abortion 31.7 37.9   35.7 32.9   34.2 35.8   35.7 30.4  
   Had ectopic pregnancy 23.2 29.7 0.66* 22.9 31.9 0.55** 26.3 26.5   27.3 22.6  
The following concerns would negatively
influence recommendation of the IUD
            
   Medical safety 79.6 63.6 2.30*** 71.8 72.2   72.8 69.5   73.0 67.8  
   Side-effects 71.4 64.3   69.8 65.1   68.9 65.6   68.4 66.7  
   Client satisfaction 44.2 45.4   45.3 43.9   45.3 43.0   43.7 48.7  
   Informed consent is cumbersome 20.8 17.6   22.9 13.2 2.47*** 19.0 19.9   17.1 28.1 0.43**
   Expense 4.4 3.3   4.0 3.8   3.9 4.0   2.7 8.8 0.25**
  1. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001 1Adjusted for other three independent variables in Table 2 (e.g. training in clinical FP provision, membership of network and experience in IUD provision)