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Table 3 Parent and young people reports of discussion of specific sexual topics and the level of agreement in both reporters

From: Parent–child communication about sexual and reproductive health: evidence from the Brong Ahafo region, Ghana

Sexual topic Parent report Young people report
Discussion with child N = 781-790* Mother discussion N = 780-783* Father discussion N = 690-696*
n (%) n (%) Kappa n (%) Kappa
Biological/developmental      
Physical development 436 (55.5) 396 (50.6) 0.53 126 (18.2) 0.24
Menstruation/wet dream 260 (63.3) 298 (38.4) 0.51 43 (6.2) 0.02
Puberty 443 (56.3) 413 (52.8) 0.53 123 (17.7) 0.23
Reproduction/having babies 51 (6.5) 48 (5.8) 0.42 3 (0.4) −0.01
Masturbation 18 (2.5) 15 (1.9) 0.04 7 (1.0) 0.25
Sexual risk prevention or safety      
Prevention of STDs 445 (56.3) 380 (48.7) 0.53 194 (27.9) 0.33
Prevention of HIV/AIDS 485 (61.5) 421 (53.8) 0.54 228 (32.8) 0.32
Abstaining from sex until marriage 581 (73.6) 544 (69.5) 0.60 320 (46.0) 0.34
Use of condoms 73 (9.3) 68 (8.7) 0.45 35 (5.1) 0.29
Contraceptives 41 (5.2) 39 (5.0) 0.45 7 (1.0) 0.22
Pregnancy 66 (8.4) 82 (10.5) 0.36 14 (2.0) 0.09
Abortion 168 (21.3) 167 (21.3) 0.62 72 (10.2) 0.41
Consequences of premarital sex 380 (48.3) 357 (45.6) 0.69 213 (30.6) 0.48
Substance use 315 (39.9) 302 (38.6) 0.63 199 (28.6) 0.56
Experiencing sex      
Sexual feelings 51 (6.5) 35 (4.5) 0.26 9 (1.3) 0.10
When to start sexual intercourse 150 (19.0) 127 (16.2) 0.60 61 (8.8) 0.37
Choosing sexual partners 90 (11.4) 77 (9.8) 0.56 27 (3.7) 0.43
How to handle sexual pressure 59 (7.2) 48 (6.1) 0.41 9 (1.3) 0.22
Safer sex 62 (7.9) 54 (6.9) 0.52 14 (2.0) 0.26
Homosexuality 42 (5.2) 37 (4.7) 0.56 29 (4.2) 0.47
  1. Note: *Sample sizes for the various topics vary due to sporadic missing values.
  2. Kappa compares agreement between (a) parent report vs. child’s report of mother communication, and (b) parent report vs. child’s report of father communication.