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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of current contraceptive use by socio-demographic characteristics of participants

From: Assessing predictors of contraceptive use and demand for family planning services in underserved areas of Punjab province in Pakistan: results of a cross-sectional baseline survey

Characteristics N n (%) OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Age of women
≤24 724 78 (10.8) 1  
>24 to 35 2,117 393 (18.6) 1.88 (1.45-2.44)***
>35 1,591 297 (18.7) 1.90 (1.45-2.48)***
Age of women at time of marriage
>25 250 26 (10.4) 1 1
>20 to 25 1,141 159 (13.9) 1.42 (0.91-2.20) 1.01 (0.60-1.74)
≤20 2,039 583 (19.2) 2.07 (1.37-3.15)*** 1.18 (0.70-1.98)
Age of husband
<30 1,002 129 (12.9) 1 1
30 to <40 1,775 306 (17.2) 1.41 (1.13-1.77)*** 0.58 (0.43-0.79)***
40+ 1,654 333 (20.1) 1.70 (1.37-2.13)*** 0.53 (0.38-0.73)***
Women education
Illiterate 2,528 354 (14.0) 1 1
Literate 1,903 413 (21.7) 1.70 (1.45-1.99)*** 1.22 (0.9-1.54)
Husband education
Illiterate 1,140 195 (17.1) 1 1
Literate 3,291 573 (17.4) 1.02 (0.85-1.22) 0.67 (0.52-0.87)**
Number of living children
0-1 child 1,017 76 (7.5) 1 1
2-3 children 1,478 305 (20.6) 3.21 (2.50-4.19)*** 3.19 (2.28-4.47)***
4 or more children 1,586 387 (24.4) 3.98 (3.07-5.17)*** 6.10 (4.20-8.86)***
Wealth quintile
Poorest 852 97 (11.4) 1 1
Poor 919 138 (15.0) 1.38 (1.05-1.82)* 0.98 (0.69-1.39)
Middle 814 148 (18.2) 1.73 (1.31-2.29)*** 1.54 (1.08-2.20)*
Rich 859 173 (20.1) 1.97 (1.50-2.58)*** 1.72 (1.20-2.47)**
Richest 963 204 (21.2) 2.09 (1.61-2.72)*** 1.41 (0.97-2.05)
Decision making regarding pregnancy
Husband decides 3,088 521 (16.9) 1 1
Mother-in-law decides 225 38 (16.9) 0.99 (0.69-1.42) 1.14 (0.73-1.80)
Respondent (women decide) 298 60 (20.1) 1.23 (0.92-1.66) 1.17 (0.82-1.69)
Both (husband and wife) decide 632 122 (19.3) 1.18 (0.94-1.46) 1.04 (0.80-1.37)
Spousal communication regarding family planning and birth spacing
No 1,765 71 (4.0) 1 1
Yes 2,655 697 (26.3) 8.48 (6.59-10.91)*** 5.29 (4.22-6.65)***
Spouses’ agreement on couple using contraceptive method is acceptable
Disagree by both 1,084 50 (4.6) 1 1
Agree by any (husband or wife) 408 65 (15.9) 3.94 (2.70-5.81)*** 1.80 (1.60-2.80)**
Agree by both 2,228 607 (27.2) 7.82 (5.80-10.55)*** 4.53 (3.26-6.30)***
Place of last child delivered
Home 2,132 367 (17.2) 1 1
Maternity Home/Private clinic 283 65 (23.0) 1.43 (1.06-1.93)* 1.30 (0.89-1.89)
Hospital 1,472 333 (22.6) 1.40 (1.19-1.66)*** 1.53 (1.24-1.88)***
  1. P-value: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.