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Table 2 Demographic and obstetric factors associated with intrapartum stillbirth

From: Incidence of intrapartum stillbirth and associated risk factors in tertiary care setting of Nepal: a case-control study

Variables* Crude Odds Ratio* (95 % CI) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95 % CI)
Maternal age (linear) 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.1)
Maternal education
 Primary education or less 3.4 (2.0–5.7) 3.2 (1.8–5.5)
 Second education or more 1  
Wealth quintile
 Non-poor 1  
Poor 1.6 (1.0–2.7) 1.8 (1.1–3.4)
Antenatal care
 At least one ANC visit 1  
 No ANC 4.9 (3.5–7.0) 4.8 (3.2–7.2)
Parity
 Primi   
 Multi-para 1.6 (1.4–1.8) 1.2 (1.0–1.5)
Antepartum hemorrhage
 No   
 Yes 5.4 (3.2–9.1) 2.1 (1.1–4.2)
Hypertensive disorder during pregnancy
 No   
 Yes 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 0.9 (0.5–1.8)
Multiple birth
 No   
 Yes 9.3 (4.5–19.0) 3.0 (1.9–5.4)
Obstetric complication during intrapartum period
 No   
 Yes 7.5 (5.3–10.7) 4.5 (2.9–6.9)
Fetal Heart Rate monitoring as per protocol
 Yes   
 No 4.6 (2.3–9.1) 1.9 (1.5–2.4)
Use of partogram   
 Yes   
 No 8.3 (4.9–14.2) 2.1 (1.1–4.1)
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal   
 Cesarean-section 1.6 (1.1–2.4) 0.8 (0.7–1.0)
Weight per gestational age
 Appropriate-for-gestational age 1.4 (1.0–2.0) 1.8 (1.2–1.7)
Small-for-gestation age   
Gestational age
  < 37 weeks 9.5 (6.7–13.5) 5.4 (3.5–8.2)
  ≥ 37 weeks   
Gestational age and weight per gestational age
 SGA and < 37 weeks 11.8 (7.1–19.5) 9.0 (7.3–15.5)
 Others   
  1. *Variables selected based on significant differences (p < 0.001) shown between the case and referent populations by Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test
  2. a Crude odds ratio determined through univariate logistic regression analysis for likelihood of intrapartum stillbirth