Skip to main content

Table 1 Maternal variables of primiparous women assisted during labor in public hospitals, Brazil, 2011–2012 (N = 2487)

From: Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey

  Mode of delivery  
Cesarean during labor Vaginal delivery p value *
N % N %
Sociodemographic variables
Maternal age (years) 12–19 144 10.7 1198 89.3 0.372
20–34 180 12.5 1264 87.5
≥35 3 10.7 25 89.3
Self-reported skin color White 69 10.4 595 89.6 0.415
Black 27 9.2 267 90.8
Brown 223 12.4 1569 87.6
Schooling level 0–7 years 81 11.1 650 88.9 0.753
8–10 years 98 10.9 803 89.1
11–14 years 141 12.5 984 87.5
15 or more 6 11.5 46 88.5
Paid Work Yes 89 12.1 649 87.9 0.728
No 237 11.4 1836 88.6
Relationship status Not living with partner 83 10.5 708 89.5 0.421
Living with partner 243 12.0 1777 88.0
Macro region of Brazil North 50 14.0 308 86.0 0.037
Northeast 147 13.9 913 86.1
South 29 15.3 161 84.7
Southeast 69 6.7 960 93.3
Midwest 33 18.6 144 81.4
Pregnancy characteristics, use of ANC, and childbirth care services
Adequacy of ANC Inadequate 307 11.8 2305 88.2 0.590
Adequate 20 9.9 182 90.1
Clinical or obstetrical conditions potentially associated with obstetric emergencies before childbirth Yes 85 22.8 288 77.2 <0.001
No 242 9.9 2199 90.1
Women assisted at the linkage maternity Yes 141 12.6 980 87.4 0.893
No 41 12.2 294 87.8
Search for childbirth care services before hospital admission Yes 76 13.9 470 86.1 0.134
No 250 11.0 2016 89.0
Prenatal counseling favorable for vaginal delivery Yes 175 8.6 1854 91.4 <0.001
No 152 19.4 633 80.6
Decision on the type of delivery at the end of pregnancy No 167 17.5 790 82.5 <0.001
Yes, vaginal 100 5.9 1608 94.1
Yes, cesarean 58 45.7 69 54.3
Labor and mode of delivery variables
Type of labor Spontaneous 306 13.2 2018 86.8 <0.001
Induced 21 4.3 468 95.7
Same professional provided assistance during ANC and childbirth Yes 12 22.2 42 77.8 0.152
No 313 11.4 2442 88.6
Cervical dilation at admission ≥4 cm 171 9.7 1584 90.3 0.017
<4 cm 156 14.7 902 85.3
Use of any of the good practices during labor Yes 207 8.7 2185 91.3 <0.001
No 120 28.5 301 71.5
Use of a venous catheter Yes 233 12.3 1656 87.7 0.507
No 94 10.5 800 89.5
Use of spinal or epidural analgesia Yes 79 30.4 181 69.6 <0.001
No 249 9.9 2276 90.1
Presence of at least one obstetric nurse during assistance with labor Yes 30 6.4 442 93.6 0.003
No 276 13.5 1774 86.5
Total   327 11.6 2487 88.4  
  1. * Chi-square of Pearson was used for analysis