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Table 1 Strategies to address men and family planning users, number of interventions by strategy, and designation of the interventions as proven, promising or emerging based on the strength of evidence on outcomes

From: Are men well served by family planning programs?

Strategy Number of Inter-ventions Countries Range of Evidence Categorization of Strategy based on Strength of Evidence
Clinic Provision of Information and Services 4 Bangladesh, Tanzania, and Papua New Guinea, India, Ghana, and Rwanda Service statistics (3); mystery client study (1) Promising
Outreach with Male Motivators and Peer Educators/Mentors 10 Malawi, Pakistan, India, El Salvador, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, Nigeria, Madagascar, Timor Leste, Ghana, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Kenya. Randomized intervention/control studies (3); pre-post intervention studies using non-randomized intervention and control designs (3); post-intervention survey (1); qualitative interviews and/or focus group discussions (3); service statistics (4) Proven/Emerging
Communications Programming
 Social marketing 3 Pakistan, Cameroon and Senegal Pre-post intervention survey (2); post-intervention survey (1) Proven
 Mass Media and Social Media 7 Bangladesh, Ghana, Honduras, Guatemala, Pakistan, India, Vietnam, Burkina Faso, Tanzania, and Nicaragua Pre-post intervention surveys (4); service statistics (3); FGD (2); In-depth interviews (1) Promising/Emerging
 mHealth 4 Nigeria, Mozambique, India, Ghana, Tanzania and Rwanda Pre-post intervention study (1) and service statistics (3) Emerging
 Hotlines 3 Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo User call statistics (2); Survey of users of a hotline (1) Emerging
Community Engagement
 Community Dialogue 10 Kenya, Uganda, South Africa, Nigeria, Pakistan, Brazil, and India Randomized control trial (2); quasi-experimental, with intervention and control groups (4); baseline/endline surveys (3); and post-intervention qualitative evaluation (1) Strongly promising (note that this intervention is strongly promising because the evidence for it comes primarily from HIV rather than FP interventions
 Engaging Religious Leaders 2 Kenya and Pakistan Longitudinal survey with baseline and endline (1); baseline/endline survey with qualitative interviews (1) Emerging
 Comprehensive Sexuality Education 4 Tanzania, Uganda, the Balkans and Thailand Pre-post intervention survey with intervention and control groups (1); indepth interviews long-term post intervention (1); qualitative indepth interviews and focus group discussions (1); pre-post intervention quantitative survey and qualitative interviews (1) Promising