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Table 3 Most commonly reported sources of menstrual information

From: Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries

First author, Year Country Setting School status N Most common source (%)
East Africa
 Zegeye 2009 [21] Ethiopia Mix School-going 564 Mother (39.7%)
North Africa
 Abd El-Hameed 2011 [44] Egypt Mix School-going 160 Mother (59.4%)
 El-Gilany 2005 [30] Egypt Mix School-going 642 Mother (92.2%), mass media (92.2%)
 Eswi 2012 [45] Egypt Urban School-going 200 Mother (53.0%)
West Africa
 Gumanga 2012 [31] Ghana Urban School-going 456 Parent (80.2%)
 Adinma 2009 [26] Nigeria Urban School-going 550 Mother (48.4%)
 Ajah 2015 [42] Nigeria Urban School-going 482 Mother (81.5%
 Aniebue 2009 [40] Nigeria Urban School-going 495 Mother (71.5%)
 Lawan 2010 [20]f Nigeria Urban School-going 385 Mother (35.3%)
 Oche 2012 [14] Nigeria Urban School-going 122 Mother or grandmother (56.6%)
Central America
 Marván 2012 [24]f Mexico Urban School-going 405 Mother (78.0%)
South Asia
 Bosch 2008 [28] Bangladesh Rural Unclear 86 Sister (29.0%)
 Dambhare 2012 [32]a India Mix School-going 561 Mother (38.2%)
 Thakre 2011 [12]a India Mix School-going 143 Mother (71.3%)
 Khanna 2005 [1] India Rural Mix - Mother (55.1%)
 Dasgupta 2008 [8]a India Rural School-going 160 Mother (37.5%)
 Kanotra 2013 [92] India Rural School-going 323 Mother (94.4%)
 Kotecha 2009 [33]a India Rural School-going 340 Mother (32.9%)
 Mudey 2010 [34] India Rural School-going 300 Mother (40.7%)
 Shanbhag 2012 [10] India Rural School-going 506 Mother (55.1%)
 Sudeshna 2012 [15]a India Rural School-going 80 Mother or sister (45.0%)
 Dhingra 2009 [29] India Rural Unclear 200 Friend (83.0%)
 Tiwari 2006 [11] India Unclear School-going 486 Mother (60.7%)
 Khanna 2005 [1] India Urban Mix - Mother (66.8%)
 Sharma 2008 [64]b India Urban Mix 156 Mother (73.7%)
 Omidvar 2010 [46]a India Urban School-going 215 Mother (54.0%)
 Yasmin 2013 [13] India Urban School-going 147 Friend (20.4%)
 Bobhate 2011 [7]c India Urban Unclear 241 Mother (75.9%)
 Udgiri 2010 [23]a India Urban Unclear 63 Mother (63.5%)
 Adhikari 2007 [5] Nepal Rural School-going 150 Coursebook (14.7%)
 Sharma 2003 [25] Nepal Urban School-going 96 Mother (37.5%)
 Ali 2010 [6]a Pakistan Urban Government school 203 Sister (35.5%)
 Ali 2010 [6]a Pakistan Urban Out-of-school 165 Sister (49.7%)
 Ali 2010 [6]a Pakistan Urban Private school 145 Mother (37.9%)
 Chandraratne 2011 [43]b Sri Lanka Urban School-going 473 Mother (67.0%)
Southeast Asia
 Lee 2006 [37] Malaysia Mix School-going 2247 Mother (80.0%)
 Wong 2011 [47]e Malaysia Rural School-going 984 Mother (62.3%)
 Wong 2011 [38]d Malaysia Rural School-going 577 Mother (31.7%)
 Wong 2011 [48]d Malaysia Urban School-going 407 Mother (62.7%)
West Asia
 Jarrah 2012 [36] Jordan Urban School-going 408 Mother (57.1%)
 Reis 2011 [27] Turkey Urban Mix 310 Mother (18.7%)
 Ersoy 2004 [2] Turkey Urban School-going 1017 Mother (55.7%)
  1. aPre-menarcheal sources
  2. bSources among those with menstrual problems
  3. cPost-menarcheal sources
  4. dSources among those who ever received information
  5. eSources among those with dysmenorrhea
  6. fFirst source