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Table 5 Physical impacts of menstruation

From: Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries

First author, Year Country Setting School status N PMSa Severe painb Headache Swellingc Fatigued
East Africa
 Zegeye 2009 [21] Ethiopia Mix School-going 565 75.4% 72.0% NR NR NR
North Africa
 Abd El-Hameed 2011 [44] Egypt Mix School-going 160 NR 94.4% NR NR NR
West Africa
 Gumanga 2012 [31] Ghana Urban School-going 456 NR 74.4% NR NR NR
 Ajah 2015 [42] Nigeria Urban School-going 482 75.1% 64.1% NR NR NR
 Aniebue 2009 [40] Nigeria Urban School-going 495   26.7% NR NR NR
Central America
 Marván 2001 [57] Mexico Urban School-going 98 NR NR 6.1% NR 14.3%
South America
 Pitangui 2013 [58] Brazil Urban School-going 174 NR 73.0% 14.4% 61.5% 27.6%
South Asia
 Dambhare 2012 [32] India Mix School-going 561 56.3% 56.2% 26.7% NR NR
 Thakre 2012 [22] India Mix School-going 387 55.8% 61.0% NR NR NR
 Baidya 2014 [77] India Rural Mix 200 8.5% 59.5% 16.0% NR 4.0%
 Rana 2015 [63] India Rural Mix 400 NR 46.8% NR NR NR
 Bodat 2013 [67] India Rural School-going 622 NR 58.1% NR NR NR
 Kanotra 2013 [92] India Rural School-going 323 3.1% 18.3% NR NR NR
 Mudey 2010 [34] India Rural School-going 300 NR NR 25.7% NR NR
 Shanbhag 2012 [10] India Rural School-going 329 NR 61.3% NR NR NR
 Wasnik 2015 [72] India Rural School-going 435 17.9% 62.3% 6.7% NR NR
 Patil 2013 [62] India Rural Unclear 440 93.2% 28.0% 1.8% NR NR
 Chaudhuri 2012 [60]e India Unclear School-going 224 NR 59.8% 28.1% (of 128) NR 70.3% (of 128)
 Sharma 2008 [64] India Urban Mix 198 63.1% 67.2% 16.7% 11.1% 48.0%
 Chandraratne 2011 [43]f Sri Lanka Urban School-going 594 66.2% 61.3% 28.1% (of 393) NR 29.1% (of 393)
 Nair 2012 [73] India Urban School-going 3443 NR 72.4% 13.9% NR 36.1%
 Sharma 2003 [25] Nepal Urban School-going 96 NR 69.8% NR NR NR
Southeast Asia
 Lee 2006 [37] Malaysia Mix School-going 2247 74.7% 69.3% NR NR NR
 Wong 2011 [47] Malaysia Rural School-going 1295 NR 76.0% NR NR NR
 Wong 2011 [38] Malaysia Rural School-going 1295 63.1% NR 47.3% 12.6% 81.1%
 Wong 2010 [78] Malaysia Urban School-going 1075 NR 74.5% NR NR NR
 Wong 2011 [48] Malaysia Urban School-going 1076 56.5% NR 38.4% 13.1% 75.4%
West Asia
 Poureslami 2002 [79] Iran Urban School-going 250 NR 71.2% NR NR NR
 Jarrah 2012 [36] Jordan Urban School-going 490 NR NR 50.4% NR 80.6%
 Santina 2012 [59] Lebanon Urban School-going 389 NR 74.3% 22.8% 34.6% NR
 Eryilmaz 2009 [80]g Turkey Unclear School-going 1951 NR 72.2% 26.1% (of 1408) NR 11.9% (of 1408)
 Reis 2011 [27] Turkey Urban Mix 310 NR 23.9% NR NR NR
  1. PMS Premenstrual symptoms/syndrome, NR Not reported
  2. aPremenstrual symptoms or premenstrual syndrome
  3. bIncluding dysmenorrhea
  4. cSwelling or bloating
  5. dFatigue or dizziness
  6. eHeadaches and fatigue reported among girls with dysmenorrhea who agreed to provide more information
  7. fHeadaches and fatigue reported among girls with PMS
  8. gHeadaches and fatigue reported among girls with dysmenorrhea