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Table 6 Social impacts of menstruation

From: Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries

First author, Year Country Setting School status N Avoid physical or social activitiesa (%) Abstain from religious activities (%) Miss school or work (%)
East Africa
 Zegeye 2009 [21]b Ethiopia Mix School-going 407 NR NR 48.2%
 Boosey 2014 [16] Uganda Rural School-going 140 NR NR 61.7% (of 133)
North Africa
 Abd El-Hameed 2011 [44] Egypt Mix School-going 160 54 NR NR
West Africa
 Adinma 2009 [26] Nigeria Urban School-going 550 NR NR 4.5%
 Ajah 2015 [42] Nigeria Urban School-going 482 NR NR 12.2%
 Aniebue 2009 [40] Nigeria Urban School-going 495 37.6% NR 2.0%
 Oche 2012 [14] Nigeria Urban School-going 122 4.9% 43.4% NR
South America
 Pitangui 2013 [58]b Brazil Urban School-going 127 NR NR 30.7%
South Asia
 Dambhare 2012 [32]b India Mix School-going 561 NR NR 13.9%
 Juyal 2013 [65] India Mix School-going 453 8.6% 87.4% NR
 Thakre 2011 [12] India Mix School-going 387 NR 44.7% 5.2%
 Rana 2015 [63] India Rural Mix 400 28.0% 53.2% 26.4%c
 Bodat 2013 [67] India Rural School-going 622 NR NR 43.2%
 Dasgupta 2008 [8] India Rural School-going 136 36.3% 60.0% 13.8%
 Kanotra 2013 [92]b India Rural School-going 59 76.6% NR NR
 Mudey 2010 [34] India Rural School-going 300 NR 87.0% NR
 Shanbhag 2012 [10] India Rural School-going 329 NR 94.2% NR
 Sudeshna 2012 [15] India Rural School-going 190 NR 75.8% 37.9%
 Chaudhuri 2012 [60]b India Unclear School-going 128 53.5% NR 25.8%
 Sharma 2008 [64] India Urban Mix 156 25.6% NR 17.2% (of 116)c
 Goel 2011 [9] India Urban School-going 478 42.7% 76.2% 14.0%
 Sharma 2003 [25] Nepal Urban School-going 67 20.0% NR NR
 Yasmin 2013 [13] India Urban School-going 147 18.4% 90.5% NR
 Bobhate 2011 [7] India Urban Unclear 241 24.1% 90.0% NR
 Ali 2010 [6] Pakistan Urban Government school 425 67.3% NR NR
 Ali 2010 [6] Pakistan Urban Out-of-school 425 58.1% NR NR
 Ali 2010 [6] Pakistan Urban Private school 425 58.1% NR NR
Southeast Asia
 Lee 2006 [37] Malaysia Mix School-going 2247 NR NR 7.0%
 Wong 2011 [47]b Malaysia Rural School-going 984 58.6% NR 18.1%
 Wong 2010 [78]b Malaysia Urban School-going 801 50.2% NR NR
 Wong 2011 [48] Malaysia Urban School-going 1076 61.5% NR NR
West Asia
 Poureslami 2002 [79] Iran Urban School-going 250 33.0% NR 15.2%
 Santina 2012 [59] Lebanon Urban School-going 389 NR NR 41.4%
  1. aAvoid or reduce physical activities (including playing and sports) or social activities (including functions and friendships with males)
  2. bAmong girls with dysmenorrhea
  3. cAmong school-going girls