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Table 7 Menstrual hygiene management practices (%)

From: Mapping the knowledge and understanding of menarche, menstrual hygiene and menstrual health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries

First author, Year Country Setting School status N Use sanitary pads (%) Use sanitary pads and cloth (%) Use old or new cloth (%) Use other materiala (%) Bathe daily (%)
East Africa
 Zegeye 2009 [21] Ethiopia Mix School-going 565 37.6% NR 62.5% NR NR
North Africa
 Abd El-Hameed 2011 [44] Egypt Mix School-going 160 NR NR NR NR 100.0%b
 El-Gilany 2005 [30] Egypt Mix School-going 642 66.8% NR 27.9% 5.3% 70.9%b
West Africa
 Iliyasu 2012 [41] Nigeria Urban Mix 184 81.0% NR NR NR NR
 Aniebue 2009 [40] Nigeria Urban School-going 495 69.1% NR 9.1% 21.8% NR
 Lawan 2010 [20] Nigeria Urban School-going 371 93.8% NR 6.2% NR NR
 Oche 2012 [14] Nigeria Urban School-going 122 86.9% NR 9.0% 4.1% NR
 Boosey 2014 [16]c Uganda Rural School-going 140 47.1% NR 87.1% 37.1% NR
South Asia
 Khanna 2005 [1] India Mix Out-of-school 304 2.0% NR 90.9% 0.3% NR
 Juyal 2013 [65] India Mix School-going 453 38.4% 26.7% 34.9% NR 63.6%
 Khanna 2005 [1] India Mix School-going 307 6.2% NR 68.4% 0.7% NR
 Khanna 2005 [1] India Rural Mix 281 3.2% NR 92.2% 0.7% NR
 Rana 2015 [63] India Rural Mix 400 39.0% NR 61.0% NR NR
 Bodat 2013 [67] India Rural School-going 622 48.1% NR 51.9% NR NR
 Dasgupta 2008 [8] India Rural School-going 160 11.3% 40% 48.8% NR NR
 Kanotra 2013 [92] India Rural School-going 323 89.5% NR 10.5% NR NR
 Mudey 2010 [34] India Rural School-going 300 15.7% NR 46.7% NR NR
 Narayan 2001 [18] India Rural School-going 327 1.7% 48% 82.5% NR NR
 Shanbhag 2012 [10] India Rural School-going 329 44.1% 21.2% 34.7% NR 88.8%
 Sudeshna 2012 [15] India Rural School-going 190 13.2% 24.2% 62.6% NR NR
 Thakre 2011 [12] India Rural School-going 146 30.8% NR 69.2% NR NR
 Wasnik 2015 [72] India Rural School-going 435 33.6% 9.2% 57.2% NR NR
 Dhingra 2009 [29] India Rural Unclear 200 NR NR NR NR 0.0%2
 Khanna 2005 [1] India Urban Mix 330 4.8% NR 69.0% 0.3% NR
 Goel 2011 [9] India Urban School-going 478 NR NR NR NR 92.9%
 Nair 2012 [73] India Urban School-going 3443 45.5% 38.2% 16.3% NR 97.6%
 Narayan 2001 [18] India Urban School-going 292 8.3% 17.1% 72.2% NR NR
 Omidvar 2010 [46] India Urban School-going 350 68.9% NR 19.1% 11.1% 81.7%b
 Thakre 2011 [12] India Urban School-going 241 60.6% NR 39.4% NR NR
 Yasmin 2013 [13] India Urban School-going 147 82.3% 1.4% 16.3% NR 85.7%
 Bobhate 2011 [7] India Urban Unclear 241 43.2% NR 41.5% 15.4% NR
 Adhikari 2007 [5] Nepal Rural School-going 150 2.0% NR 98.0% NR 4.0%
 Ali 2010 [6]c Pakistan Urban Government school 425 17.9% NR 87.5% 3.9% 44.2%b
 Ali 2010 [6]c Pakistan Urban Out-of-school 425 13.2% NR 81.0% 6.6% 45.9%b
 Ali 2010 [6]c Pakistan Urban Private school 425 33.8% NR 62.6% 4.4% 45.2%b
West Asia
 Poureslami 2002 [79] Iran Urban School-going 250 NR NR NR NR 66.0%b
  1. NR Not reported
  2. aOther materials include various types of tissue and cotton
  3. bProportion of girls that bathe at all during their period
  4. cMultiple responses accepted for materials used