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Table 1 Description of the participants and motives for discontinuation of FGM/C for their daughters

From: The mothering experience of women with FGM/C raising ‘uncut’ daughters, in Ivory Coast and in Canada

Name Country of residence Age at FGM/C Country of origin Religion Number of daughters Reported motive(s) for not having daughters undergo FGM/C
Aicha Canada 5–6 years old Somalia Muslim 1 1- Not mentioned in the Quran. Not mandated by Islam.
Bilal Canada 80 days Ethiopia Christian 1 1-Does not want her daughter to suffer the consequences of FGM/C that she is enduring: a) intimacy is unsatisfactory, b) feeling of not being whole as a woman.
Hanan Canada 7–9 years old Djibouti Muslim 3 1- Does not want daughters to suffer the consequences of the practice (participant had a severe haemorrhage requiring urgent hospitalization).
Fatou Canada 6–7 years old Guinea Muslim 2 1- Suffered too much from the procedure and refuses to have her daughters undergo FGM/C.
Fatma Canada 7 years old Egypt Muslim 3 1- Husband does not want daughters to undergo FGM/C.
2- Paediatrician advised her not to have FGM/C performed.
3- Friends from the diasporic Egyptian community are against FGM/C and
did not do it for their daughters.
Binta Canada 6 years old Guinea Muslim 1 1- Suffered deeply from the practice and refuses to have her daughter experience the pain of FGM/C.
Mariam Canada 2 months old Mali Muslim 1 1- Pediatrician advised her not to have daughter undergo FGM/C.
2- Afraid that her daughter will be taken away by Youth Protection if her daughter has FGM/C.
Helen Ivory Coast 18 years old Ivory Coast Christian 2 1- Suffered physically from the procedure (fainted) and is concerned about the sexual consequences of FGM/C. Does not want her daughters to undergo the ritual.
Amina Ivory Coast 10 years old I Ivory Coast Muslim 3 1- Does not want her daughters and grandchild to suffer as she did. Perceives FGM/C as an antiquated practice.
Alice Ivory Coast 10 years old Ivory Coast Christian 1 1- Does not want her daughter to suffer as she did and currently does (recurrent infections and haunted by the memory of the event).
2- Finds that FGM/C makes delivery more painful.
3- Believes men nowadays prefer to be with “uncut” women, and so it would be detrimental to daughter to have her undergo FGM/C.
Martine Ivory Coast 14 years old Ivory Coast Christian 1 1- Suffered from the procedure (fainted) and does not want daughter to suffer as well.
2- Believes men nowadays prefer to be with “uncut” women, and so it would be detrimental to daughter to have her undergo FGM/C.
Awa Ivory Coast 16 years old Ivory Coast Muslim 3 1- Her husband left her due to the consequences of FGM/C (sexuality was an issue). She does not want her daughter to have conjugal difficulties.
Samira Ivory Coast 5 years old Burkina Faso Christian 2 1- Believes FGM/C to be a harmful practice.
Amina Ivory Coast 4 years old Ivory Coast Muslim 1 1- Suffered from the practice and almost passed away (from haemorrhage). Believes the practice is harmful and highly dangerous. Does not want daughter to undergo the same experience.
Rokhaya Ivory Coast 5–6 years old Ivory Coast Christian 2 1- Suffered from the practice and knows of a child who passed away after undergoing FGM/C. Did not want to subject her daughters to the ritual.