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Table 3 Themes of impact on the examinee

From: Virginity testing: a systematic review

Theme
Physical harm: Virginity tests resulted in physical harm to examinees. Reported incidents include injury caused by examiner, relatives, and examinee herself. Reports include examiner-induced aggravation of existing injuries, a failed test resulting in a relative breaking examinee’s arms, and completed suicide [6, 14, 32, 33].
Psychological harm: The psychological trauma of anticipating, experiencing, and recalling the virginity test was reported by examinees and witnesses. Included are reports of extreme fear and anxiety before the test, screaming, crying, and fainting during the test, and long-term effects of self-hatred, loss of self-esteem, violation of privacy, and re-victimization of previous sexual assault [6, 14, 30, 32, 34].
Social harm: The social effects of virginity testing were documented. Included are reports of a negative test bringing shame and dishonor to families and communities, social ostracism through marriage ineligibility and exclusion from jobs, and humiliation through name-calling. Positive tests also are reported to increase a virgin’s risk of sexual assault [4, 6, 35].