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Table 4 Adverse perinatal outcomes among different management groups in WHOGS, WHOMCS and Combined databases

From: Management of pregnancy at and beyond 41 completed weeks of gestation in low-risk women: a secondary analysis of two WHO multi-country surveys on maternal and newborn health

Adverse perinatal outcomes WHOGS WHOMCS Combined
n/N (%) Crude ORa (95% CI) AORb (95% CI) n/N (%) Crude ORa (95% CI) AORb (95% CI) n/N (%) Crude ORa (95% CI) AORb (95% CI)
APGAR <7 at 5 min
 IOL 40/2119 (1.9) 1 1 23/2213 (1.1) 1 1 63/4332 (1.5) 1 1
 ECS 3/691 (0.4) 0.39 (0.12, 1.22) 0.31 (0.08, 1.23) 13/1260 (1.0) 1.20(0.61, 2.36) 0.92 (0.45, 1.90) 16/1951 (0.8) 0.81 (0.47, 1.40) 0.67 (0.36, 1.23)
 EM 309/13338 (2.3) 1.10 (0.77, 1.57) 1.21 (0.82, 1.81) 232/13382 (1.8) 1.41 (0.91, 2.20) 1.39 (0.88, 2.19) 541/26720 (2.0) 1.19 (0.90, 1.57) 1.27 (0.95, 1.72)
Admission to NICU
 IOL 146/2119 (6.9) 1 1 101/2213 (4.6) 1 1 247/4332 (5.7) 1 1
 ECS 67/691 (9.7) 1.61 (1.15, 2.26) 1.13 (0.75, 1.72) 117 /1260 (9.3) 1.99 (1.47, 2.71) 1.76 (1.28, 2.42) 184/1951 (9.4) 1.85 (1.49, 2.31) 1.51 (1.19, 1.92)
 EM 1035/13338 (7.8) 0.94 (0.76, 1.15) 0.99 (0.79, 1.26) 587/13382 (4.4) 0.90 (0.71, 1.15) 0.92 (0.72, 1.18) 1622/26720 (6.1) 0.93 (0.80, 1.08) 0.95 (0.81, 1.12)
Stillbirth
 IOL 10/2119 (0.5) 1 1 8/2213 (0.4) 1 1 18/4332 (0.4) 1 1
 ECS 0/691 (0.0) 4 /1260 (0.3) 1.06 (0.31, 3.62) 0.99 (0.27, 3.57) 4/1951 (0.2) 0.70 (0.24, 1.99) 0.61 (0.20, 1.83)
 EM 47/13338 (0.4) 0.69 (0.33, 1.46) 0.63 (0.29, 1.38) 73/13382 (0.6) 1.29 (0.60, 2.78) 1.29 (0.56, 2.98) 120/26720 (0.5) 0.97 (0.58, 1.60) 0.92 (0.54, 1.58)
Early neonatal death
 IOL 2/2119 (0.1) 1 1 7/2213 (0.3) 1 1 9/4332 (0.2) 1 1
 ECS 1/691 (0.1) 2.25 (0.20, 25.5) 2.10 (0.18, 24.7) 4 /1260 (0.3) 1.23 (0.35, 4.35) 0.95 (0.26, 3.45) 5/1951 (0.2) 1.69 (0.59, 4.85) 1.35 (0.46, 4.00)
 EM 50/13338 (0.4) 4.17 (0.99, 17.5) 3.82 (0.89, 16.2) 67/13382 (0.5) 1.28 (0.57, 2.91) 1.11 (0.48, 2.56) 117/26720 (0.4) 1.94 (0.99, 3.80) 1.74 (0.88, 3.45)
Perinatal death
 IOL 12/2119 (0.6) 1 1 15/2213 (0.7) 1 1 27/4332 (0.6) 1 1
 ECS 1/691 (0.1) 0.42 (0.06, 3.02) 0.41 (0.05, 3.10) 8 /1260 (0.6) 1.15 (0.50, 2.66) 0.96 (0.40, 2.30) 9/1951 (0.5) 1.06 (0.50, 2.22) 0.90 (0.42, 1.94)
 EM 97/13338 (0.7) 1.27 (0.68, 2.36) 1.18 (0.62, 2.22) 139/13382 (1.0) 1.20 (0.70, 2.05) 1.14 (0.65, 2.02) 236/26720 (0.9) 1.26 (0.83, 1.89) 1.19 (0.77, 1.82)
  1. (IOL Induction of labour group, ECS Elective Caesarean section group, EM Expectant management group) aCrude ORs were calculated by multilevel logistic regression model after accounted for cluster effect(facility level and country level) bAdjusted – for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, education, parity, previous CS); neonatal characteristics (birth weight); facility capacity index score and cluster effect (health facility level, country level in WHOGS and WHOMCS; one more level (data source – WHOGS & WHOMCS) in combined database Values in bold mean they are statistically significant (p < 0.05)