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Table 4 Coverage of recommended antenatal care practices

From: PRENACEL – a mHealth messaging system to complement antenatal care: a cluster randomized trial

  Intervention Group Control Group   
Totala (n = 770) PRENACELb (n = 116) (n = 440) p (ITT) p (PP)
Mean ANCS c 46.6 (8.0) 48.5 (4.2) 45.2 (8.7) 0.0002* <0.0001*
≥ 6 antenatal visits 686 (89.1%) 112 (96.6%) 373 (84.8%) 0.06* 0.01*
Tetanus immunization 272 (35.3%) 39 (33.6%) 145 (33%) 0.44 0.98
Hepatitis B immunization 304 (39.5%) 44 (37.9%) 156 (35.5%) 0.18 0.70
Influenza immunization 272 (35.3%) 36 (31%) 123 (28%) 0.01 0.59
TDAP immunization 303 (39.4%) 45 (38.8%) 131 (29.8%) 0.001 0.08
Ferrous sulfate prescription 629 (81.7%) 104 (89.7%) 352 (80%) 0.52 0.8
Folic acid prescription 639 (83%) 108 (93.1%) 334 (75.9%) 0.03* 0.08*
Dental exam 322 (41.8%) 67 (57.8%) 178 (40.5%) 0.69 0.02*
Educational activities 90 (11.7%) 14 (12.1%) 58 (13.2%) 0.50 0.87
Complete blood count 736 (95.6%) 111 (95.7%) 412 (93.6%) 0.18 0.54
Blood type 716 (93%) 110 (94.8%) 397 (90.2%) 0.11 0.17
Fasting blood glucose 728 (94.5%) 110 (94.8%) 410 (93.2%) 0.40 0.67
Stool parasitology 522 (67.8%) 76 (65.5%) 249 (56.6%) 0.0001 0.10
Urinalysis
 0 52 (6.8%) 4 (3.4%) 40 (9.1%) 0.30 0.13
 1 269 (34.9%) 42 (36.2%) 144 (32.7%)   
 2 449 (58.3%) 70 (60.3%) 256 (58.2%)   
Urine culture
 0 90 (11.7%) 13 (11.2%) 66 (15%) 0.22 0.58
 1 224 (29.1%) 35 (30.2%) 129 (29.3%)   
 2 456 (59.2%) 68 (58.6%) 245 (55.7%)   
Toxoplasmosis test 743 (96.5%) 113 (97.4%) 419 (95.2%) 0.35 0.44
Syphilis test
  ≤ 2 506 (65.7%) 69 (59.5%) 331 (75.2%) 0.01* 0.03*
 3 264 (34.3%) 47 (40.5%) 109 (24.8%)   
HIV test
  ≤ 2 515 (66.9%) 62 (53.4%) 327 (74.3%) 0.03* 0.0006*
 3 255 (33.1%) 54 (46.6%) 113 (25.7%)   
Hepatitis B test 736 (95.6%) 113 (97.4%) 416 (94.5%) 0.50 0.30
OGTT 75 g 618 (80.3%) 98 (84.5%) 320 (72.7%) 0.003* 0.01*
Ultrasonography exam 737 (95.7%) 113 (97.4%) 410 (93.2%) 0.08 0.13
  1. ANCS Antenatal care score, TDAP immunization tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis, OGTT 75 g oral glucose tolerance test; ITT: intention-to-treat, PP per protocol analysis
  2. *p-values adjusted by multivariate analysis
  3. aAll IG (Intervention Group) includes all eligible pregnant women who received ANC in intervention primary health care units, regardless of the PRENACEL registration status;
  4. bPRENACEL group only includes pregnant women who received and accessed PRENACEL SMS
  5. cReported as mean (standard deviation)