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Table 1 Published data on maternal and pregnancy outcomes after EBOV infection

From: Protected to death: systematic exclusion of pregnant women from Ebola virus disease trials

Location (Time) [Reference] Number of pregnant women Pregnancy stage Age Maternal outcome Pregnancy outcome
A. Data available from previous epidemics to inform design of studies in the 2013–2016 EVD epidemic
 Southern Sudan (1976) [69] NS NS NS NS Occasional premature labour
 Zaire, Yambuku (1976) [18] 82 NS NS Died: 73/82 (89%) Spontaneous abortion:
 18/73 who died
 1/9 who survived
Live births to women who died: 11 (0 surviving beyond 19 days)
 Zaire, Kikwit (1995) [17] 15 1st: 4 (25%) Mean: 32 Died: 14/15 (93%) Spontaneous abortion:
2nd: 6 (40%) Range: 24–38  9/14 who died
3rd: 5 (33%)  1/1 who survived
Stillbirth at 32 weeks: 1
Full term live delivery: 1 (newborn died 3 days later, mother died due to extreme genital bleeding)
 Gulu, Uganda [70] 1 28 weeks 30 Discharged alive Spontaneous abortion
 DRC, Isiro (2012) [71] 1 7 months 29 Died one day after delivery Premature delivery on day 6 of disease, newborn died at 8 days
B. Data emerging during the 2013–2016 EVD epidemic
 DRC, Equateur (July-Oct 2014) [47] 1 NS NS Died Died in utero with mother
 Liberia, Monrovia (after August 2014)a [48] 1 Late stage 31 Died Died in utero with mother
 Liberia, Monrovia (Aug - Oct 2014)a [53] 4 Late 2nd /3rd NS Died: 3 (75%) Miscarriage shortly before maternal death: 3
Fetus carried to term: 0
 Guinea, Guéckédou (Feb/March 2014)b [50] 1 NS 16 Diedg Spontaneous abortion
 Guinea, Guéckédou (June 2014)c [51] 2 7 months 20s Survived Stillbirths
 Guinea, Guéckédou (Dec 2014/Jan 15)c [52] 2 4 months; 5 months 40/22 Survived Miscarriages
 Guinea, Conakry (2015) [56] 1 35–36 weeks 25 Died day of delivery (treated with favipiravir outside, but as per JIKI trial procedures) [38] Live girl, EBOV qRT-PCR positive, monitored emergency use of ZMapp on days 2, 5, 8; buffy coat transfusion from EVD survivor on day 11
 Sierra Leone, Kailahun (2014–2015)d [57] 1 36 weeks 34 Survived Induced delivery after diagnosis of intrauterine fetal death
 Sierra Leone, Kailahun, Kenema (May/June 2014) [55] 1 35h NS Diedh Miscarriage
 Sierra Leone, Bo (2014/2015)e [58] 1 7 months 20 Survived Stillborn fetus
 Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia MSF Ebola Treatment Centers (2014–2016) [56] 54f 2nd/3rd trimester NS NS 2nd trimester miscarriages: 35
Neonatal death: 1 (after 2 days)
 Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia MSF Ebola Treatment Centers (1 April 2014–15 April 2015)f [54] [49] 77f [54] 1st: 16   41/77 died: Stillbirth: 30
 22 undelivered Neonatal death: 1
2nd: 26  18 delivered before death 36/77 survived [49] [54]
3rd: 28
Missing information:7
Guinea & Sierra Leone (April 2015–2016)i [43] [72] >20 NS    2 spontaneous abortions
  1. DRC Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire, NS not specified
  2. aELWA 3 MSF Ebola Treatment Unit, bMSF team, cMSF Ebola Teatment Centre Guéckédou, dMSF Ebola Treatment Unit Kailahun, eMSF Ebola Management Center Bo, fData on 77 women from eight MSF Ebola Management Centers includes 12 women in the 2nd and 3rd trimester reported in publications [48] [50] [51] [52] [53] [57]
  3. gSeverine Caluwaerts, personal communication: this woman is incorrectly reported in the publication as having survived
  4. hJ.S. Schieffelin, personal communication; outcome not reported in the paper [55]
  5. iA-M Henao-Restrepo and MSF, personal communication