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Table 1 Comparison of respect and disrespect typologies

From: Midwives’ respect and disrespect of women during facility-based childbirth in urban Tanzania: a qualitative study

Bowser & Hill (2010) Bohren et al. (2015) White Ribbon Alliance (2011) Present study
Respect for women Disrespect for women
Physical abuse Physical abuse
 - Use of force
 - Physical restraint
Freedom from harm and ill treatment   Physical abuse
 - Physical force including slapping, beating, pushing the abdomen in a non-emergency case; episiotomy without anesthesia; and harmful, unsanitary, and an unprofessional medical procedure
  Sexual abuse    
Non-consented care Failure to meet professional standards
 - Lack of informed consent and confidentiality
Right to information, informed consent and refusal, and respect for choices and preferences, including the right to companionship of choice wherever possible Positive interaction among midwives and women
 - Giving consideration to women’s emotions, greeting, implementing good communication skills, explaining what they were going to do, providing the results, and giving their own assessment and advice
Non-consented care
 - Performing medical treatment or physical examination without any explanation or consent from the women
Non-confidential care Failure to meet professional standards
 - Physical examinations and procedures
Confidentiality, privacy Respect for women’s privacy
 - Considering and protecting woman’s privacy from other women
Non-confidential care
 - Invading women’s physical and psychological privacy without any partition and asking women their private or personal information in front of others
Non-dignified care (including verbal abuse) Verbal abuse
 - Harsh language
 - Threats and blaming
Dignity, respect Positive interaction among midwives and women
 - Giving consideration to women’s emotions, greeting, implementing good communication skills, explaining what they were going to do, providing the results, and giving their own assessment and advice
Psychological abuse
 - Actions with violent words or harsh tones such as scolding, threatening, berating, and blaming, and emotional neglect by not genuinely sympathizing or considering the women’s situation
Abandonment or denial of care Failure to meet professional standards
 - Neglect and abandonment
Right to timely healthcare and to the highest attainable level of health Provide safe and timely midwifery care for delivery
 - Periodic monitoring of the laboring process, performing appropriate care for delivery with precise timing by judging women’s laboring process
Actively engage in women’s laboring process
 - Correcting both subjective and objective data to grasp and assess the progress of labor by going to the women’s side to predict what would be expected for the women’s childbirth
Abandonment of care
 - Ignoring, neglecting, and abandoning women during childbirth even if the women were yelling or screaming for help
Discrimination based on specific attributes Stigma and discrimination
 - Discrimination based on sociodemographic characteristics
 - Discrimination based on medical conditions
Equality, freedom from discrimination, equitable care   
Detention in facilities
   Liberty, autonomy, self-determination, and freedom from coercion   
    Encourage mother-baby relationship
 - Encouraging the relationship between the mother and the baby after giving birth by having skin-to-skin mother-baby care and breastfeeding
 
  Poor rapport between women and providers
 - Ineffective communication
 - Lack of supportive care
 - Loss of autonomy
   Psychological abuse
 - Actions with violent words or harsh tones such as scolding, threatening, berating, and blaming, and emotional neglect by not genuinely sympathizing or considering the women’s situation
     Unprioritized and disorganized
nursing and midwifery management
  Health system conditions and constraints
 - Lack of resources
 - Lack of policies
 - Facility culture
   Lack of accountability
 - One of the factors contributing to disrespect for women not systematically assigned to a group of women; the midwives’ practice was impromptu
Unethical clinical practices
 - There were no rule-based recordings or ethical charting