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Table 1 Summary of evidence from published literature describing group models for antenatal care delivery in low- and middle-income countries

From: Group antenatal care models in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic evidence synthesis

Study Citation Sultana et al. (2017) [26] Ruhl et al. (2015) [27] Penna et al. (2008) [28] Patil et al. (2013) [29] Lori et al. (2016) [30] Jafari et al. (2010) [31] Ghani (2014) [32] Arnold et al. (2014) [33] Nair et al. (2015) [34]
Panel I: Study or Program Characteristics
 Group ANC or Participatory Group Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC Participatory Group
 Country Bangladesh Kenya Brazil Malawi, Tanzania Ghana Iran Egypt Botswana India
 Setting - Public/Nonhospital - PublicHospital UrbanPublicHospital UrbanPublicNon-hospital Urban-Hospital - Private Hospital Rural--
 Is the model informed by an existing group format? No No No CP No No CP CP No
Panel II: Model Attributes
(a) Group          
 How many women are in a group? 6–10 women 15–20 women 12 women 12 women 8–10 women 12 mother/father pairs
 How are women grouped? Gestational age Gestational age Availability and willingness to attend Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age
 Is the composition of the group stable? Yes Yes Yes Yes
(b) Leaders          
 How many leaders does the group have? 2 2 2 1
 What cadre of care providers typically leads the group? 1 Qualified HCP/1 Nurse 1 Qualified HCP/1 CHW Midwives Midwives Midwife Midwife or Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner CHW
 Is the group leadership the same throughout all sessions? Yes Yes Yes
 Do group leaders use a facilitative leadership style? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
(c) Content          
 Does the model include a clinical assessment component? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Does the model include an education or skill-building component? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the model include a support group or counselling component? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the health assessment occur within the group space? Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
 Do the women participate in self-care activities? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
 Are sessions guided by an overall plan or outline? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Do sessions follow the core content but allow flexibility to tailor the session to the group’s needs? Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the model include a postnatal care component? No Yes (4 PNC) No No No Yes (1 PNC)
(d) Dynamics and Environment          
 Does the group promote (through shared guidelines) respect and sharing among one another? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the group allow for the participation of support persons? Yes Yes Noa
 Are participants provided with the opportunity for socializing within the group? Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Are discussions and activities conducted in a circle? Yes Yes Yes Yes
(e) Logistics          
 What is the total number of group sessions? 4–6 ANC 4 ANC + 4 PNC 7 ANC 10 ANC 9 ANC 20
 How frequently do the group sessions occur? Monthly Monthly
 How long is each group session? 120 min 120 min 90–120 min 120 min
 Do the leaders and/or participants regularly evaluate the group experience? Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. CP: Centering Pregnancy®; CHW: Community Health Worker; HCP: Healthcare Provider
  2. aSupport person participation was obligatory as study focuses on paternal satisfaction with the group model