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Table 2 Summary of evidence from key informant interviews describing group antenatal care models in low- and middle-income countries

From: Group antenatal care models in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic evidence synthesis

Key Informant Interview Identification Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Panel I: Study or Program Characteristics
 Group ANC or Participatory Group or Hybrid Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC Hybrid Hybrid Hybrid Group ANC Group ANC Group ANC
 Country Kenya Suriname MalawiTanzania Rwanda Kenya Ghana Uganda Nigeria, Kenya Mexico Nepal
 Setting Urban Private Non-hospital Urban-- Rural Malawi, Urban Tanzania-- Rural + urban-- Rural Public Non-hospital Urban-- Rural + urban-- Rural + urban-- Rural + urban-- Rural--
 Is the model informed by an existing group format? No CP CP CP HBLSS HBLSS HBLSS CPHBLSS CP CPParticipatory groups
Panel II: Model Attributes
(a) Group           
 How many women are in a group? 8–12 women 12 women 8–12 women 5 women 12 women 10–12 women 8–15 women 10 women 6–15 women
 How are women grouped? Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age Gestational age
 Is the composition of the group stable? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
(b) Leaders           
 How many leaders does the group have? 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2
 What cadre of care providers typically leads the group? 2 Midwives 1 Midwife1 CHW 1 Nurse/1 CHW 1 CHP 2 Midwives 1 Nurse or Midwife 2 Midwives 1 HCP/1 Nurse CHW 1 ANM1 CHW
 Is the group leadership the same throughout all sessions? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Do group leaders use a facilitative leadership style? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
(c) Content           
 Does the model include a clinical assessment component? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the model include an education or skill-building component? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the model include a support group or counselling component? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the health assessment occur within the group space? No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
 Do the women participate in self-care activities? Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
 Are sessions guided by an overall plan or outline? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Do sessions follow the core content but allow flexibility to tailor the session to the group’s needs? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the model include a postnatal care component? Yes (1 PNC) Yes (1 PNC) Yes (1 PNC) Yes (1 PNC) Yes (1 PNC)
Dynamics and Environment
 Does the group promote (through shared guidelines) respect and sharing among one another? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Does the group allow for the participation of support persons? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Are participants provided with the opportunity for socializing within the group? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  
 Are discussions and activities conducted in a circle? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
(d) Logistics           
 What is the total number of group sessions? 9–10 ANC + 1 PNC 4 ANC +
1 PNC
4 ANC +
1 PNC
7 ANC 5 ANC 7 ANC +
1 PNC
3 ANC +
1 PNC
 How frequently do the group sessions occur?   Approx. every 2 months
 How long is each group session? 90 min 60–90 min 120 min
 Do the leaders and/or participants regularly evaluate the group experience? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. Hybrid refers to a combination of elements of the HBLSS and CenteringPregnancy® models
  2. ANM: Auxilliary Nurse Midwives; CHW: Community Health Workers; CHP: Community Health Provider; CP: CenteringPregnancy®; HBLSS: Home Based Life Saving Skills