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Table 2 Estimates of the Prevalence of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa

From: A global view of severe maternal morbidity: moving beyond maternal mortality

Article Country Setting Definition of SMM Estimated Prevalencea Leading Causes
Adeoye 2013 [66] Nigeria 1 tertiary referral hospital, Ile-Ife Filippi et al. 2005 109.9b Hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, dystocia
Ali 2011 [77] Sudan 1 tertiary referral hospital, Kalassa Filippi et al. 2005 22.1 Hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders
David 2014 [78] Mozambique 5 health facilities, Maputo city/province eclampsia, infection hypertension, anemia, dystocia 20.2 Hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infection
Gebrehiwot 2014 [59] Ethiopia 10 public hospitals hypertensive disorders, obstetric hemorrhage, dystocia, infection, anemia 90.8 Dystocia or uterine rupture, hypertensive disorders, hemorrhage
Goldenberg 2017 [51] Democratic Republic of Congo 14 health centers and 3 hospitals, Equateur province Modified WHO 37.3b Not reported by country
Goldenberg 2017 Kenya 23 health facilities and 3 referral hospitals, Busia, Bungoma and Kakamega counties Modified WHO 31.2b Not reported by country
Goldenberg 2017 Zambia 8 health posts, 3 district hospitals and 1 referral hospital, Kafue and Chongwe districts Modified WHO 13.0b Not reported by country
Herklots 2017 [79] Tanzania Tertiary referral hospital, Zanzibar WHO 9.0 Hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders
Kalisa 2016 [80] Rwanda Provincial referral hospital, Musanze district Modified WHO 21.5 Hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders
Kiruja 2017 [81] Somaliland Main referral hospital WHO 88.6 Hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, infection
Litorp 2014 [82] Tanzania 2 hospitals, Dar es Salaam WHO 36 Hypertensive disorders, hemorrhage
Liyew 2017 [83] Ethiopia 5 public hospitals, Addis Ababa WHO 8.1 Hypertensive disorders, hemorrhage, abortive outcome
Lori 2012 [62] Liberia Rural county Modified WHO and Filippi et al. 2005 16% of deliveries Hemorrhage, anemia, sepsis
Mbachu 2017 [54] Nigeria Private hospital, Elele WHO 198 Hemorrhage, abortive outcome, hypertensive disorders
Mekango 2017 [84] Ethiopia 6 public hospitals, Tigray Filippi et al. 2005 101 Hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, dystocia
Nakimuli 2016 [85] Uganda 2 referral hospitals, Central Uganda WHO 8.42 Hypertensive disorders, hemorrhage
Nelissen 2013 [86] Tanzania Referral hospital, rural Modified WHO 23.6 Hemorrhage, abortive outcome, dystocia
Oladapo 2016 [57] Nigeria 42 public tertiary hospitals WHO 15.8 Hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, abortive outcome
Rulisa 2015 [87] Rwanda University hospital, Kigali WHO 8 Sepsis, hypertensive disorders, hemorrhage
Sayinzoga 2017 [88] Rwanda 4 rural district hospitals Modified WHO 36 Hemorrhage, uterine rupture, abortive outcome
Soma-Pillay 2015 [89] South Africa 9 delivery facilities, Gauteng province WHO 4.4c Hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis
Tuncalp 2013 [90] Ghana Tertiary referral hospital, Accra WHO 28.6 Not reported
  1. aper 1000 live births
  2. bper 1000 deliveries
  3. cper 1000 pregnancies