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Table 1 Summary of included studies and quality assessment

From: Women’s and communities’ views of targeted educational interventions to reduce unnecessary caesarean section: a qualitative evidence synthesis

Author Intervention Country and region Setting Number of participants Type of participants Robson Groups Method Quality Assessment
McCants [47, 48] Prebirth educational brochure. USA, Americas Urban 16 Non-pregnant women Communitya In-depth interviews C
Shorten [46] Internet-based decision aid about birth choices after previous caesarean developed from an earlier paper-based decision aid. USA, Americas Urban 9 Pregnant women 5 Semi-structured Interviews B
Ramvi [45] Women who took part in a team Midwifery intervention referred because they requested a caesarean because of fear of birth and actually had a vaginal birth. Norway, European Urban 5 Postnatal women 1–5 In-depth interviews A
Basso [44] Problematizing educational intervention with groups of pregnant women and partners comprising eight face-to-face sessions. Brazil, Americas Urban 51 Pregnant women and partners 1 and 2 Convergent Care study A
David [43] Dedicated next birth after caesarean telephone helpline manned by midwives to promote safe and successful vaginal birth in a subsequent pregnancy. Australia, Western Pacific Unclear 170 Pregnant women 5 Content analysis C
Milne [42] Decision board comprising decisional aids that provide a standardized base of written and graphic evidence-based information about vaginal and caesarean birth. Canada, Americas Urban 40 Non-pregnant women Communitya Semi-structured interviews C
Frost [41] Two computer decision aids (an information programme and an individualised decision analysis programme) UK, European Urban 30 Pregnant women 5 Semi-structured interviews B
Farnworth [40] Informational DVD/video and a home visit by a midwife UK, European Urban 18 Pregnant women 5 Semi-structured interview B
Emmett [39] Two decision aids (an information programme and an individualised decision analysis programme) UK, European Urban 26 Pregnant and postnatal women 5 Semi-structured interview and observation B
Wang [38] Web-based education program for vaginal birth after caesarean Taiwan, Western Pacific Urban 10 Postnatal women 5 Telephone interviews C
Shorten [37] Birth choices booklet: Development, preliminary evaluation and pilot. Australia, Western Pacific Urban 21 Pregnant women 5 Questionnaire booklet with open questions C
Cleeton [36] Suzanne Arms’ 1998 videotape Giving Birth USA, Americas Sub-Urban 65 Non-pregnant women and male students Communitya Questionnaire with open questions B
  1. a Community defined as men and women of reproductive age but not currently pregnant to best of author’s knowledge