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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the sample by two overall levels of mistreatment

From: An investigation into mistreatment of women during labour and childbirth in maternity care facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India: a mixed methods study

  Total (n = 275) N, (%) Less than or equal to median number of mistreatment items N, (%) Greater than median number of mistreatment items N, (%) Pa value
1. Women’s age
 a. < 20 years 16 (5.8) 14 (7.5) 2 (2.3) 0.23
 b. 20–35 years 247 (89.8) 165 (88.2) 82 (93.2)
 c. 35 years or more 12 (4.4) 8 (4.3) 4 (4.6)
2. Parity
 a. Primipara 119 (43.3) 76 (40.6) 43 (48.9) 0.32
 b. Multipara 145 (52.7) 102 (54.6) 43 (48.9)
 c. Grandmultipara 11 (4.0) 9 (4.8) 2 (2.3)
3. Referral status
 a. Patient comes directly to this facility 243 (88.4) 164 (87.7) 79 (89.8) 0.62
 b. Patient referred from another facility 32 (11.6) 23 (12.3) 9 (10.2)
4. Caste groupb
a. “Scheduled caste and tribe” 61 (22.2) 38 (20.3) 23 (26.1) 0.40
b. “Other backward caste” 153 (55.6) 109(58.3) 44 (50.0)
c. “General caste” 61 (22.2) 40 (21.4) 21 (23.9)
5. Socio-economic status
 a. 1st quintile (lowest) 56 (20.4) 41 (21.9) 15 (17.1) 0.56
 b. 2nd quintile 54 (19.6) 35 (18.7) 19 (21.6)
 c. 3rd quintile 55 (20.0) 39 (20.9) 16 (18.2)
 d. 4th quintile 55 (20.0) 39 (20.9) 16 (18.2)
 e. 5th quintile (highest) 55 (20.0) 33 (17.7) 22 (25.0)
6. Delivery by qualified attendants
 a. Qualified attendants c 113 (41.1) 78 (41.7) 35 (39.8) 0.76
 b. Unqualified attendants d 162 (58.9) 109 (58.3) 53 (60.2)
7. Timing of admission
 a. Within work hours (9:00 AM − 17:00 PM) 254 (92.4) 168 (89.8) 86 (97.7) 0.02
 b. Out of hours (17:01 PM to 8: 59 am) 21 (7.6) 19 (10.2) 2 (2.3)
8. Admission day
 a. Admission during weekdays 211 (76.7) 141 (75.4) 70 (79.6) 0.45
 b. Admission during weekends. 64 (23.3) 46 (24.6) 18 (20.5)
9. Sector     
 a. Public 211 (76.7%) 138 (73.8) 73 (82.9) 0.09
 b. Private 64 (23.2%) 49 (26.2) 15 (17.1)
  1. aFor the comparison of the proportions for less than or equal to median number of items of mistreatment observed and greater than median number of items of mistreatment that were observed
  2. bThe caste system in India is a system of social stratification that places people in occupational groups. Members of scheduled castes are the lowest castes in society and protected by the government through special concessions [61]. For caste, we have used the exact language of the various ethnic categories given in Indian national family health survey questionnaires
  3. cDoctors, nurses or nurse-midwives – with at least 5, 4 and 2 years of pre-service training, respectively – who are licensed, regulated and endorsed by the government to provide maternity care at health facilities
  4. dAccredited social health activists, cleaners, hospital porters, other community health workers, traditional birth attendants and others who are not legally allowed by the government to provide maternity care at health facilities