Skip to main content

Table 2 Bivariate analysis of the significance by socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of observed indicators of mistreatment

From: An investigation into mistreatment of women during labour and childbirth in maternity care facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India: a mixed methods study

  No privacy % No Position choice % Woman not informed prior to vaginal exam % Companion not allowed % Process of labour not explained % Reason for augmentation not explained % Restrict food and water % Enema % Public shaving % Fundal pressure % Uterine lavage % Manual uterus exploration % Episiotomy % Physical abuse % Verbal abuse % Mistreatment score (mean)
Total N reporting mistreatment (N = 275) 82 252 74 23 99 40 21 84 27 79 10 221 65 21 37 Range 1–15
Women’s age
  < 20 years 18.8% 81.3% 25.0% 0.0% 18.8% 12.5% 0.0% 62.5% 6.3% 18.8% 0.0% 68.8% 43.8% 0.0% 0.0% 4.4
 20–35 years 30.4% 92.3% 27.1% 8.9% 36.0% 15.0% 8.5% 28.7% 10.5% 28.7% 4.0% 81.4% 23.1% 7.3% 14.2% 4.9
 35 years or more 33.3% 91.7% 25.0% 8.3% 58.3% 8.3% 0.0% 25.0% 0.0% 41.7% 0.0% 75.0% 8.3% 25.0% 16.7% 5.1
 Pearson Chi square 0.59 0.30 0.97 0.46 0.10 0.79 0.28 0.02 0.43 0.42 0.56 0.42 0.08 0.04 0.26  
Parity
 Primipara 26.1% 91.6% 24.4% 9.2% 31.9% 20.2% 6.7% 36.1% 16.% 34.5% 5.0% 80.7% 45.4% 7.6% 16.0% 5.2
 Multipara 33.1% 91.0% 30.3% 8.3% 41.4% 10.3% 7.6% 24.1% 4.8% 25.5% 2.8% 78.6% 7.6% 8.3% 11.7% 4.7
 Grandmultipara 27.3% 100.0% 9.1% 0.0% 9.1% 9.1% 18.% 54.5% 0.0% 9.1% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 9.1% 4.3
 Pearson Chi square 0.45 0.59 0.22 0.57 0.05 0.07 0.39 0.02 0.003 0.10 0.50 0.23 < 0.001 0.61 0.55  
Referral status
 Patient comes directly to this facility 29.6% 91.8% 27.2% 7.4% 36.6% 13.2% 7.4% 30.0% 9.9% 30.0% 2.9% 79.8% 21.8% 7.4% 12.3% 4.9
 Patient referred from another facility 31.3% 90.6% 25.0% 15.6% 31.3% 25.0% 9.4% 34.4% 9.4% 18.8% 9.4% 84.4% 37.5% 9.4% 21.9% 5.0
 Pearson Chi square 0.85 0.83 0.80 0.11 0.55 0.07 0.69 0.62 0.93 0.19 0.07 0.54 0.05 0.69 0.14  
Caste   
“Scheduled caste and tribe” 32.8% 93.4% 36.1% 8.2% 39.3% 13.1% 9.8% 27.9% 6.6% 34.4% 1.6% 78.7% 19.7% 11.5% 13.1% 5.0
“Other backward caste” 28.1% 92.2% 24.2% 6.5% 35.3% 13.1% 8.5% 30.1% 10.5% 24.2% 3.9% 82.4% 20.3% 6.5% 15.0% 4.8
“General caste” 31.1% 88.5% 24.6% 13.1% 34.4% 19.7% 3.3% 34.4% 11.5% 34.4% 4.9% 77.0% 36.1% 6.6% 9.8% 4.9
 Pearson Chi square 0.77 0.58 0.19 0.11 0.82 0.44 0.33 0.72 0.61 0.18 0.60 0.63 0.04 0.44 0.60  
Socio-economic status
 1st quintile (lowest) 41.1% 89.3% 42.9% 7.1% 46.4% 17.9% 5.4% 25.0% 8.9% 30.4% 0.0% 83.9% 10.7% 3.6% 12.5% 4.9
 2nd quintile 27.8% 90.7% 37.0% 3.7% 33.3% 11.1% 7.4% 29.6% 3.7% 27.8% 5.6% 74.1% 16.7% 14.8% 20.4% 4.8
 3rd quintile 23.6% 96.4% 18.2% 5.5% 43.6% 12.7% 12.7% 38.2% 5.5% 20.0% 9.1% 74.5% 25.5% 3.6% 7.3% 4.7
 4th quintile 32.7% 92.7% 21.8% 5.5% 32.7% 12.7% 7.3% 20.0% 5.5% 30.9% 3.6% 83.6% 21.8% 10.9% 16.4% 4.8
 5th quintile (highest) 23.6% 89.1% 14.5% 20.0% 23.6% 18.2% 5.5% 40.0% 25.5% 34.5% 0.0% 85.5% 43.6% 5.5% 10.9% 5.1
 Pearson Chi square 0.22 0.62 0.002 0.01 0.09 0.76 0.59 0.11 0.001 0.53 0.05 0.37 0.001 0.10 0.31  
Delivery by qualified attendants *
 Unqualified attendants 30.2% 93.2% 32.7% 4.9% 36.4% 15.4% 9.3% 28.4% 6.2% 29.0% 1.9% 78.4% 17.3% 9.9% 16.0% 4.8
 Qualified attendants 29.2% 89.4% 18.6% 13.3% 35.4% 13.3% 5.3% 33.6% 15.0% 28.3% 6.2% 83.2% 32.7% 4.4% 9.7% 4.9
 Pearson Chi square 0.85 0.26 0.01 0.01 0.86 0.62 0.23 0.35 0.02 0.90 0.06 0.33 0.003 0.09 0.13  
Admission during work hours#
 Within work hours 31.9% 90.9% 28.0% 9.1% 36.2% 15.0% 7.1% 32.3% 10.6% 30.7% 3.9% 80.7% 24.8% 7.9% 13.8% 5.0
 Out of hours 4.8% 100.0% 14.3% 0.0% 33.3% 9.5% 14.3% 9.5% 0.0% 4.8% 0.0% 76.2% 9.5% 4.8% 9.5% 3.7
 Pearson Chi square 0.01 0.15 0.18 0.15 0.79 0.50 0.23 0.03 0.12 0.01 0.35 0.62 0.11 0.61 0.58  
Admission during weekends?
 Admission during weekdays 30.8% 90.0% 23.7% 10.0% 32.7% 14.2% 7.1% 34.6% 11.% 29.4% 4.7% 82.0% 26.5% 8.5% 14.7% 5.0
 Admission during weekends. 26.6% 96.9% 37.5% 3.1% 46.9% 15.6% 9.4% 17.2% 4.7% 26.6% 0.0% 75.0% 14.1% 4.7% 9.4% 4.6
 Pearson Chi square 0.52 0.08 0.03 0.08 0.04 0.78 0.55 0.01 0.12 0.66 0.08 0.22 0.04 0.31 0.28  
Sector
 Public sector 35.5% 91.0% 30.8% 6.2% 38.9% 14.7% 7.1% 28.9% 6.2% 31.3% 2.8% 78.2% 21.8% 9.5% 15.2% 4.9
 Private sector 10.9% 93.8% 14.1% 15.6% 26.6% 14.1% 9.4% 35.9% 21.% 20.3% 6.3% 87.5% 29.7% 1.6% 7.8% 4.7
 Pearson Chi square < 0.01 0.49 0.01 0.02 0.07 0.90 0.55 0.29 < 0.01 0.09 0.20 0.10 0.19 0.04 0.13