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Table 2 Health-facility and health-system level factors influencing women’s preferences on mode of delivery; categories, themes and subthemes

From: Women’s perspectives on health facility and system levels factors influencing mode of delivery in Tehran: a qualitative study

Categories/Themes Subthemes
Theme 1: Health system conditions
 - Hospital type (public, private) - Doing procedures by doctors or students
- Stressful environment
 - Staff - Staff number
- Access to staff
- Competent and motivated staff
 - Birth policies - Availability of VBAC
- Pain relief options in NVD
- Partner/family’s companion during labor/ delivery
Theme 2: Standards of care in facilities
 - Physical condition of birth facility - Comfortable, and calming birth environment
- Clean environment during both labor and birth
 - Physical examination and procedures - Asking permission to carry out labor and childbirth procedures
- painful vaginal examination
- unnecessary vaginal examination
 - Continuous and organized care - Lack of neglect and abandonment
- Timely care
 - Ethics - Women trust healthcare providers in recommending mode of delivery
- Privacy
Theme 3: Interaction between women and providers  
 - Communicating in a respectful and supportive manner with women - Confident and supportive relationship care
 - Communicating with women’s partners/families - Providing information for women’s partners/families
Theme 4: Preserving women’s dignity Not blaming women for their fears and/or moaning and crying due to pain
- Providing women-centered care
Theme 5: Provision of information - Information about the environment, labor processes/procedures
- Information about risks and benefits of vaginal delivery and/or CS
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