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Table 1 Baseline participant characteristics

From: Antenatal predictors of incident and persistent postnatal depressive symptoms in rural Ethiopia: a population-based prospective study

  Baseline (N = 1311) Followed up (N = 1240)
Variables Values PHQ-9 < 5
N (%)
PHQ-9 ≥ 5
N (%)
PHQ-9 < 5
N (%)
PHQ-9 ≥ 5
N (%)
Pregnancy Intention Wanted 552 (59.7) 182 (47.0) 528 (59.7) 168 (47.2)
Mistimed 66 (7.1) 36 (9.3) 61 (6.9) 30 (8.4)
Unwanted 306 (33.1) 169 (44.7) 295 (33.4) 158 (44.4)
Monthly Income category Low 286 (31.0) 170 (43.9) 276 (31.2) 159 (44.4)
Medium 300 (32.5) 123 (31.8) 283 (32.0) 109 (30.6)
High 335 (36.3) 94 (24.3) 325 (36.8) 89 (25.0)
Residence Urban 87 (9.4) 16 (4.1) 82 (9.3) 16 (4.5)
Rural 837 (90.6) 371 (95.6) 802 (90.7) 340 (95.5)
Mother’s Education Non-literate 600 (64.9) 278 (71.8) 581 (65.7) 260 (73.0)
Literate 334 (36.1) 109 (28.2) 303 (34.3) 96 (27.0)
Number of Chronic Illnesses None 578 (62.6) 207 (53.5) 554 (62.7) 188 (52.8)
One or more 346 (37.4) 180 (46.5) 330 (37.3) 168 (47.2)
History of adverse perinatal outcomes None 723 (76.1) 252 (65.1) 674 (76.2) 233 (65.4)
One or more 221 (23.9) 135 (34.9) 210 (23.8) 123 (34.6)
Self-reported pregnancy complications None 567 (61.4) 89 (23.0) 541 (61.2) 86 (24.2)
One or more 357 (38.6) 298 (77.0) 343 (38.8) 270 (75.8)
Alcohol Use Nil (none use) 614 (66.5) 261 (67.4) 588 (66.5) 240 (67.4)
Minimal (1–2 points 264 (28.6) 95 (24.5) 251 (28.4) 87 (24.4)
Hazardous (3 or more points) 46 (5.0) 31 (8.0) 45 (5.1) 29 (8.1)
  1. Income was categorized into tertiles as low, medium and high
  2. Intimate Partner violence score: minimum = 9; Maximum = 16; Mean = 2.14; SD = 2.88
  3. Parity score: minimum = 0; Maximum = 12; Mean = 2.74; SD = 2.09