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Table 2 Predictors of persistence and incidence of maternal depressive symptoms

From: Antenatal predictors of incident and persistent postnatal depressive symptoms in rural Ethiopia: a population-based prospective study

  aRR (95% CI)
Predictors Persistent vs non-persistent, N = 356 Incidence vs persistently negative, N = 884
Pregnancy Intention: Wanted 1 1
Mistimed 0.77 (0.40, 1.47) 0.75 (0.36, 1.56)
Unwanted 1.11 (0.81, 1.51) 1.12 (0.79, 1.58)
Family Income: Low 1 1
Medium 1.14 (0.83, 1.57) 1.31 (0.91, 1.90)
High 1.12 (0.78, 1.61) 0.85 (0.55, 1.31)
Residence: Rural 1.34 (0.59, 3.06) 0.69 (0.40, 1.21)
Mother’s Education: Non-literate 1 1
Literate 0.96 (0.67, 1.37) 0.91 (0.60, 1.37)
PHQ-9 total score 1.03 (0.99, 1.06) 1.29 (1.15, 1.45)*
Number of chronic conditions 1.17 (0.97, 1.41) 1.13 (0.86,1.48)
History of adverse perinatal outcome 0.89 (0.66, 1.20) 1.09 (0.76, 1.56)
Self-reported pregnancy complications 1.04 (0.73, 1.47) 1.24 (0.90, 1.71)
Intimate Partner Violence Score 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 1.06 (1.00, 1.12)*
Number of threatening life events 0.97 (0.89, 1.06) 1.03 (0.92, 1.14)
Parity 1.05 (0.98, 1.13) 0.97 (0.88, 1.07)
Alcohol use: None 1 1
Minimal 0.89 (0.63, 1.26) 0.88 (0.61, 1.25)
Hazardous 1.28 (0.82, 1.98) 1.11 (0.55, 2.23)
  1. * = significant at < 0.05