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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of the Study Population

From: Maternal overweight and obesity and the risk of caesarean birth in Malawi

Characteristics 2004 2010 2015 2004—2015
N = 6795 N = 4474 N = 4363 N = 15,732
n (%) SE n (%) SE n (%) SE n (%) SE
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal delivery 6558 (96.5) 0.3 4349 (95.3) 0.4 4061 (93.8) 0.5 14,968 (95.4) 0.2
 Caesarian delivery 237 (3.5) 0.3 225 (4.7) 0.4 302 (6.2) 0.5 764 (4.6) 0.2
BMI category (kg/m)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 485 (7.1) 0.4 272 (6.2) 0.5 224 (5.1) 0.4 981 (6.3) 0.3
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 5432 (79.5) 0.6 3424 (74.3) 0.9 3174 (73.6) 0.9 12,030 (76.3) 0.5
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 743 (11.4) 0.5 599 (13.3) 0.6 736 (16.3) 0.7 2078 (13.3) 0.4
 Obese (≥30) 135 (2.0) 2.0 279 (6.2) 0.5 229 (5.0) 0.4 643 (4.1) 0.2
Sex of the child
 Male 3485 (51.1) 0.7 2295 (49.7) 1.0 2176 (49.4) 0.9 7956 (50.2) 0.5
 Female 3310 (48.9) 0.7 2279 (50.3) 1.0 2187 (50.6) 0.9 7776 (49.8) 0.5
Maternal age (years)
 15–19 462 (6.8) 0.4 260 (5.7) 0.4 281 (6.8) 0.5 1003 (6.5) 0.3
 20–24 2196 (32.5) 0.7 1225 (27.2) 0.8 1283 (29.4) 0.9 4704 (30.1) 0.5
 25–29 1735 (25.8) 0.6 1307 (29.4) 0.9 1094 (24.6) 0.8 4136 (26.5) 0.4
 30–34 1100 (16.0) 0.5 829 (17.2) 0.7 856 (20.1) 0.8 2785 (17.5) 0.4
 35–49 1302 (18.9) 0.6 953 (20.5) 0.8 849 (19.2) 0.7 3104 (19.4) 0.4
Mother’s educational level
 No formal education 1732 (24.9) 0.9 750 (16.8) 0.8 525 (12.7) 0.6 3007 (19.2) 0.5
 Primary 4288 (63.1) 0.8 3131 (66.9) 0.9 2779 (65.6) 0.9 10,198 (64.6) 0.5
 Secondary or higher 775 (12.0) 0.6 693 (16.3) 0.8 1059 (22.7) 0.8 2527 (16.2) 0.5
Household wealth
 Poorest 1292 (18.9) 0.7 967 (19.7) 0.9 918 (23.5) 0.8 3177 (20.5) 0.5
 Poor 1493 (21.3) 0.8 989 (21.5) 0.8 927 (22.1) 0.9 3409 (21.6) 0.5
 Middle 1584 (22.5) 0.7 1029 (21.1) 0.8 850 (19.1) 0.7 3463 (21.1) 0.4
 Richer 1374 (20.1) 0.7 903 (18.5) 0.7 820 (18.0) 0.8 3097 (19.1) 0.4
 Richest 1052 (17.1) 1.2 686 (19.1) 1.1 848 (17.3) 0.7 2586 (17.8) 0.7
Parity
 1 1263 (19.3) 0.6 706 (16.3) 0.6 965 (22.2) 0.8 2934 (19.2) 0.4
 2–3 2487 (37.0) 0.7 1668 (40.0) 0.9 1731 (39.5) 1.0 5886 (38.0) 0.5
 4–5 1609 (23.0) 0.6 1212 (25.7) 0.8 1010 (23.3) 0.8 3831 (23.9) 0.4
  ≥ 6 1436 (20.7) 0.6 988 (20.0) 0.7 657 (14.9) 0.7 3081 (18.9) 0.4
Number of ANC visits
  < 4 2839 (41.8) 0.8 2540 (54.2) 0.9 2125 (48.3) 1.0 7504 (47.3) 0.5
  ≥ 4 3956 (58.2) 0.8 2034 (45.8) 0.9 2238 (51.7) 1.0 8228 (52.7) 0.5
Smoking
 No 6776 (99.8) 0.1 4554 (99.5) 0.1 4337 (99.5) 0.1 15,667 (99.6) 0.1
 Yes 19 (0.2) 0.1 20 (0.5) 0.1 26 (0.5) 0.1 65 (0.4) 0.1
Place of residence
 Urban 761 (13.8) 1.5 489 (16.0) 1.0 763 (14.3) 0.6 2013 (14.6) 0.9
 Rural 6034 (86.2) 1.5 4085 (84.0) 1.0 3600 (85.7) 0.6 13,719 (85.4) 0.9
Geographical region
 Northern 897 (13.2) 1.1 798 (11.2) 0.7 797 (11.2) 0.4 2492 (12.1) 0.7
 Central 2486 (39.5) 1.7 1591 (43.8) 1.2 1534 (43.2) 0.8 5611 (41.8) 1.0
 Southern 3412 (47.3) 1.7 2185 (45.0) 1.1 2032 (45.6) 0.8 7629 (46.1) 1.0
  1. ANC Antenatal Care, BMI Body Mass Index, SE Standard Error, % are weighted to reflect population characteristics of children and their mothers at the national levels; n are unweighted sample sizes