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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of sociodemographic and delivery factors and trends in maternal overweight and obesity by caesarian births from 2004 to 2015

From: Maternal overweight and obesity and the risk of caesarean birth in Malawi

Characteristics 2004 2010 2015 2004–2015
No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
BMI category (kg/m)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 469 (96.7) 16 (3.3)c 265 (97.4) 7 (2.6)b 214 (95.5) 10 (4.5)a 11,509 (95.7) 521 (4.3)
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 5253 (96.7) 179 (3.3) 3266 (95.4) 158 (4.6) 2990 (94.2) 184 (5.8) 1941 (93.4) 137 (6.6)
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 712 (95.8) 31 (4.2) 563 (94.0) 36 (6.0) 666 (90.5) 70 (9.5)† 570 (88.7) 73 (11.3)
 Obese (≥30) 124 (91.9) 11 (8.1) 255 (91.4) 24 (9.6) 191 (83.4) 38 (16.6)† 11,509 (95.7) 521 (4.3)
Sex of the child
 Male 3359 (96.4) 126 (3.6) 2176 (94.8) 119 (5.2) 2014 (92.6) 162 (7.4) 7549 (94.9) 407 (5.1)
 Female 3199 (96.7) 111 (3.3) 2173 (95.4) 106 (4.6) 2047 (93.6) 140 (6.4) 7419 (95.4) 357 (4.6)
Maternal age (years)
 15–19 434 (93.9) 28 (6.1)b 248 (95.4) 12 (4.6)c 264 (94.0) 17 (6.0)c 946 (94.3) 57 (5.7)b
 20–24 2112 (96.2) 84 (3.8) 1153 (94.1) 72 (5.9) 1198 (93.4) 85 (6.6) 4463 (94.9) 241 (5.1)
 25–29 1676 (96.6) 59 (3.4) 1234 (94.4) 73 (5.6) 1000 (91.4) 94 (8.6) 3910 (94.5) 226 (5.5)
 30–34 1066 (96.9) 34 (3.1) 803 (96.9) 26 (3.1) 792 (92.5) 64 (7.5) 2661 (95.5) 124 (4.5)
 35–49 1270 (97.5) 32 (2.5) 911 (95.6) 42 (4.4) 807 (95.1) 42 (4.9) 2988 (96.3) 116 (3.7)
Mother’s educational level
 No formal education 1695 (97.9) 37 (2.1)a 732 (97.6) 18 (2.4)a 508 (96.8) 17 (3.2)a 2935 (97.6) 72 (2.4)a
 Primary 4147 (96.7) 141 (3.3) 2994 (95.6) 137 (4.4) 2622 (94.4) 157 (5.6) 9763 (95.7) 435 (4.3)
 Secondary or higher 716 (92.4) 59 (7.6) 623 (89.9) 70 (10.1) 931 (87.9) 128 12.1) 2270 (89.8) 257 (10.2)
Household wealth
 Poorest 1249 (96.7) 43 (3.3)a 933 (96.5) 34 (3.5)a 879 (95.8) 39 4.2)a 3061 (96.4) 116 (3.6)a
 Poor 1454 (97.4) 39 (2.6) 953 (96.4) 36 (3.6) 892 (96.2) 35 (3.8) 3299 (96.8) 110 (3.2)
 Middle 1544 (97.5) 40 (2.5) 990 (96.2) 39 (3.8) 802 (94.4) 48 (5.6) 3336 (96.3) 127 (3.7)
 Richer 1342 (96.4) 50 (3.6) 853 (94.5) 50 (5.5) 763 (93.1) 57 (6.9) 2940 (94.9) 157 (5.1)
 Richest 987 (93.8) 65 (6.2) 620 (90.4) 66 (9.6) 725 (85.5) 123(14.5) 2332 (90.2) 254 (9.8)
Parity
 1 1184 (93.8) 79 (6.2)a 640 (90.7) 66 (9.3)a 871 (90.3) 94 (9.7)a 2695 (91.9) 239 (8.1)a
 2–3 2409 (96.9) 78 (3.1) 1582 (94.8) 86 (5.2) 1599(92.4) 132 (7.6) 5590 (95.0) 296 (5.0)
 4–5 1564 (97.2) 45 (2.8) 1174 (96.9) 38 (4.1) 959 (95.0) 51 (4.5) 3697 (96.5) 134 (3.5)
  ≥ 6 1401 (97.6) 35 (2.4) 953 (96.5) 35 (3.5) 632 (96.2) 25 (3.8) 2986 (96.9) 95 (3.1)
Number of ANC visits
  < 4 2774 (97.7) 65 (2.3)b 2434 (95.8) 106(4.2)b 2009(94.5) 116 5.5)b 7217 (96.2) 287 (3.8)a
  ≥ 4 3784 (95.7) 172 (4.3) 1915 (94.2) 119 (5.8) 2052(91.7) 186 (8.3) 7751 (94.2) 477 (5.8)
Smoking
 No 6540 (96.5) 236 (3.5) 4330 (95.1) 224 (4.9) 4036(93.1) 301 (6.9) 14,906 (95.1) 761 (4.9)
 Yes 18 (94.7) 1 (5.3) 19 (95.0) 1 (5.0) 25 (96.2) 1 (3.8) 62 (95.4) 3 (4.6)
Place of residence
 Urban 716 (94.1) 45 (5.9)b 449 (91.8) 40 (8.2)b 658 (86.2) 105 (13.8)a 1823 (90.6) 190 (9.4)a
 Rural 5842 (96.8) 192 (3.2) 3900 (95.5) 185 (4.5) 3403(94.5) 197 (5.5) 13,145 (95.8) 574 (4.2)
Geographical region
 Northern 852 (95.0) 47 (4.5)c 752 (94.2) 46 (5.8) 710 (89.1) 7(10.9)a 2314 (92.9) 178 (7.1)a
 Central 2409 (96.9) 77 (3.1) 1521 (95.6) 70 (4.4) 1433(93.4) 101 (6.6) 5363 (95.6) 248 (4.4)
 Southern 3297 (96.6) 115 (3.4) 2076 (95.0) 109 (5.0) 1918(94.4) 114 (5.6) 7291 (95.6) 338 (4.4)
  1. ANC Antenatal Care, BMI Body Mass Index; aP < 0.0001; bP < 0.001; cP < 0.05; †p-trend, < 0.001
  2. Boldface shows results of the trend analysis that overweight and obesity and caesarean births significantly increased by cohort years from 2004 to 2015