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Table 3 Multivariate Logistic Regression for Maternal Obesity and the Risk of Caesarian Section

From: Maternal overweight and obesity and the risk of caesarean birth in Malawi

Characteristics 2004 2010 2015 2004—2015
AORs 95% (CI) AORs 95% (CI) AORs 95% (CI) AORs 95% (CI)
BMI category (kg/m2)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 1.04 (0.61–1.76) 0.53 (0.24–1.15) 0.77 (0.38–1.55) 0.78 (0.54–1.12)
 Normal (18.5–24.9) 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 1.25 (0.83–1.87) 1.19 (0.80–1.77) 1.36 (1.01–1.83) c 1.35 (1.10–1.65) b
 Obese (≥30) 2.15 (1.12–4.11) c 1.66 (1.08–2.55) c 2.18 (1.48–3.21) a 2.16 (1.65–2.84) a
Sex of the child
 Male 1.10 (0.84–1.43) 1.11 (0.84–1.48) 1.19 (0.93–1.51) 1.13 (0.97–1.30)
 Female 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Maternal age (years)
 18–19 1.37 (0.61–3.08) 0.28 (0.11–0.70) b 0.57 (0.26–1.22) 0.55 (0.35–0.87) c
 20–24 1.03 (0.51–2.09) 0.53 (0.27–1.02) 0.66 (0.37–1.19) 0.61 (0.42–0.88) b
 25–29 1.15 (0.63–2.11) 0.71 (0.39–1.30) 0.99 (0.58–1.67) 0.86 (0.62–1.19)
 30–34 1.27 (0.74–2.17) 0.55 (0.32–0.95) c 1.07 (0.67–1.73) 0.94 (0.70–1.27)
 35–49 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Mother’s educational level
 No formal education 0.48 (0.29–0.81) b 0.41 (0.22–0.77) b 0.67 (0.38–1.17) 0.47 (0.35–0.64) a
 Primary 0.61 (0.42–0.89) c 0.67 (0.47–0.96) c 0.87 (0.65–1.17) 0.69 (0.57–0.83) b
 Secondary or higher 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Household wealth
 Poorest 0.92 (0.55–1.52) 0.60 (0.36–0.99) c 0.57 (0.36–0.91) c 0.72 (0.54–0.94) c
 Poor 0.71 (0.42–1.19) 0.55 (0.35–0.92) c 0.47 (0.30–0.73) c 0.59 (0.45–0.78) b
 Middle 0.65 (0.40–1.06) 0.55 (0.34–0.87) c 0.66 (0.45–0.98) c 0.63 (0.49–0.82) b
 Richer 0.82 (0.52–1.28) 0.74 (0.50–1.10) 0.71 (0.50–1.00) 0.77 (0.61–0.96) c
 Richest 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Parity
 1 1.98 (0.91–4.12) 3.71 (1.76–7.83) b 3.11 (1.51–6.43) b 3.18 (2.10–4.81) a
 2–3 1.10 (0.57–2.09) 1.65 (0.86–3.17) 1.87 (0.97–3.58) 1.70 (1.19–2.42) b
 4–5 1.04 (0.61–1.73) 0.96 (0.54–1.70) 1.11 (0.63–1.98) 1.09 (0.80–1.49)
  ≥ 6 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Number of ANC visits
 Inadequate 0.56 (0.42–0.76) a 0.75 (0.58–0.98) c 0.76 (0.58–0.99) c 0.72 (0.62–0.84) a
 Adequate 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Smoking
 No 0.45 (0.06–3.50) 1.21 (0.16–9.13) 1.53 (0.17–13.8) 0.90 (0.27–3.05)
 Yes 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Place of residence
 Urban 1.05 (0.70–1.58) 0.96 (0.64–1.42) 1.37 (1.00–1.87) c 1.18 (0.96–1.45)
 Rural 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
Geographical region
 Northern 1.36 (0.95–1.96) 1.01 (0.70–1.45) 1.74 (1.27–2.39) b 1.40 (1.15–1.70) b
 Central 0.98 (0.73–1.33) 0.83 (0.60–1.14) 1.16 (0.87–1.55) 1.00 (0.84–1.19)
 Southern 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref. 1.00 Ref.
  1. ANC Antenatal Care, BMI Body Mass Index, AORs Adjusted Odds Ratios, 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval; aP < 0.0001; bP < 0.001; cP < 0.05
  2. All boldface entries are significant as the confidence interval revealed