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Table 7 Crude odds ratios estimating associations between maternal characteristics and any mistreatment (n = 2138)

From: The Giving Voice to Mothers study: inequity and mistreatment during pregnancy and childbirth in the United States

  n OR 95% CI
Logistic Regression Lower bound Upper bound
SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS
 Maternal Race: Black (reference category: white) 2098 1.77 1.31 2.40
 Maternal Race: Hispanic (reference category: white) 2098 2.04 1.42 2.93
 Maternal Race: Asian (reference category: white) 2098 1.64 0.97 2.77
 Maternal Race: Indigenous (reference category: white) 2098 2.98 1.73 5.13
 Maternal Race: Women of colour (reference category: white women) 2098 1.91 1.51 2.41
 Age: 17 to 25 years (reference category: 31–39) 1956 1.71 1.08 2.69
 Age: 26–30 years (reference category: 31–39) 1956 1.15 0.88 1.49
 Age: Over 40 (reference category: 31–39) 1956 1.04 0.62 1.74
 Nulli/primiparity (reference category: multiparity) 2135 2.50 1.99 3.14
 Low SES - Yes (reference category: no) 2138 1.56 1.24 1.96
MEDICAL OR SOCIAL FACTORS
 Elevated pregnancy risk - Yes (reference category: no) 2138 2.28 1.78 2.92
 History of substance use, incarceration and/or IPV (social risk)- Yes (reference category: no) 2138 2.24 1.59 3.17
CONTEXT OF CARE
 Prenatal midwifery care (reference group: prenatal physician care) 2076 0.31 0.25 0.40
 Actual place of birth hospital or alongside birthing center (reference group: community birth) 2119 7.17 5.31 9.68
 Mode of birth unplanned Cesarean or operative vaginal delivery (reference group: planned Cesarean or spontaneous vaginal birth) 2129 3.72 2.79 4.97
 Difference in opinion with care provider (reference group: no difference in opinion with care provider) 2138 22.69 13.94 36.92