Skip to main content

Table 8 Intersection between mistreatment, race and additional variables (n = 2138)

From: The Giving Voice to Mothers study: inequity and mistreatment during pregnancy and childbirth in the United States

   n (%) who report any mistreatment
Intersectional Factor n Women of colour (n = 162) White women (n = 199)
Sociodemographics
 Nulliparity 811 92/282 (32.6) 114/529 (21.6)
 Age 17–25 years 116 17/55 (30.9) 11/61 (18.0)
 Low SES 726 83/309 (26.9) 74/417 (17.7)
Medical or Social Factors
 Elevated pregnancy risk 434 60/162 (37.0) 60/272 (22.1)
 Social risk 172 30/66 (45.5) 21/106 (19.8)
Context of care
 Prenatal midwifery care 1120 63/393 (16.0) 107/1057 (10.1)
 Actual place of birth: hospital or in-hospital birthing centre 1013 137/404 (33.9) 146/609 (24.0)
 Actual place of birth: home or freestanding birthing centre 1009 17/258 (6.6) 38/751 (5.1)
 Unplanned Caesarean or operative vaginal birth 235 43/105 (41.0) 48/130 (36.9)
 Difference in opinion with care provider 102 39/47 (83.0) 42/55 (76.4)