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Table 1 Characteristics of studies on postpartum contraceptive use, by regions (n = 35)

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of postpartum contraceptive use among women in low- and middle-income countries

First author [Reference] Publication year Survey year(s) Country Study Design Study population Outcomes included in the meta-analysis New Castle Ottawa Scoreb
Maternal Age (years)a Time point of assessment Sample size
West Africa
 Adanikin [63] 2013 2011–2012 Nigeria RCT Mean = 29.2 6 months 216 mCPR 4
 Adeyemi [41] 2005 2003–2004 Nigeria Prospective cohort Mean = 28.5 9–10 months 256 mCPR, unmet need 4
 Eliason [6] 2013 2012 Ghana Cross-sectional Mean = 25.6 At the clinic 1914 4
 Sipsma [51] 2013 2006 Niger Cross-sectional Mean = 29 6 months 673 mCPR 4
 Robinson [37] 2016 2010 Ghana Qualitative (FGD) Range = 15–49 0–12 months 13 2
 Durosinlorun [62] 2016 2000–2014 Nigeria Retrospective cohort Range = < 20 to ≥50 6 months 5992 4
 Iliyasu [53] 2018 2015 Nigeria Cross-sectional Mean = 27 12 months 317 mCPR 4
 Morhe [54] 2017 2011 Ghana Cross-sectional Mean = 31.1 6–12 months 200 mCPR 5
East Africa
 Balkus [58] 2007 1999–2003 Kenya Prospective cohort Range = 18–42 12 months 410 mCPR 3
 Hubacher [42] 2013 2011–2012 Kenya Prospective cohort Range = 18–39 6–12 weeks 671 Birth spacing & limiting 3
 Mumah [35] 2015 2007–2010 Kenya Prospective cohort Range = 15–49 0–12 months 3579 mCPR, birth limiting 4
 Ndugwa [17] 2011 2007–2008 Kenya Prospective cohort Range = 11–52 0–12 months 2994 mCPR, birth limiting 3
 Abera [10] 2015 2013 Ethiopia Cross-sectional Mean = 27.2 6 weeks-12 months 703 mCPR, birth spacing & limiting 5
 Abraha [11] 2017 2015 Ethiopia Cross-sectional Mean = 27.4 0–12 months 590 mCPR, birth spacing & limiting 5
 O’Shea [36] 2014 2013 Malawi Cross-sectional Range = 18–35+ 0–12 months 634 3
 Keogh [50] 2015 2008 Tanzania Cross-sectional Range = 15–35+ 6–12 months 5284 mCPR, birth spacing & limiting 3
 Mengesha [43] 2015 2012 Ethiopia Cross-sectional Mean = 28.3 12 months 899 mCPR, birth spacing & limiting 5
 Shabiby [57] 2015 2012 Kenya Cross-sectional Mean = 26 At discharge after birth 185 3
 Sileo [44] 2015 2012 Uganda Cross-sectional Mean = 25.8 3 months 258 mCPR, unmet need 4
 MCHIP [39] 2012 2008–2009 Kenya Cross-sectional (DHS data) Range = 15–49 0–12 months 2264 Unmet need, birth spacing & limiting 3
 Achwoka [55] 2017 2013 Kenya Cross-sectional Mean = 25.8 8–10 months 955 mCPR 5
 Gebremariam [59] 2017 2015 Ethiopia Cross-sectional Mean = 30.8 6–12 months 605 mCPR 5
 Gebremedhin [60] 2018 2015 Ethiopia Cross-sectional Range = 15–49 12 months 803 mCPR 4
South Asia/South East Asia
 Chhabra [13] 2016 2014 India Cross-sectional Range = 15–40 8 weeks 117 mCPR 2
 Kashyap [14] 2016 2015 India Cross-sectional Range = 18–35 10 weeks 178 mCPR 2
 Mody [48] 2014 2008 India Cross-sectional Range = 17–45 6 months 1049 mCPR 3
 Withers [38] 2010 2002–2003 Indonesia Cross-sectional Mean = 29.9 0–12 months 1528 mCPR 5
 FP seminar [40] 2014 NA India Seminar report NS 0–12 months 56 countries 2
 Navodani [56] 2017 2014 Sri Lanka Cross-sectional Mean = 29.4 8–12 weeks 1112 mCPR 5
 Wilopo [49] 2017 2015 Indonesia Cross-sectional Range = 15–49 6 months 1415 mCPR, unmet need 4
Middle East/North Africa
 Elweshahi [45] 2018 2016 Egypt Cross-sectional Mean = 30 12 months 1500 mCPR, unmet need 5
Multi-regional (South Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa/Central America)
 Moore [16] 2015 2005–2012 21 LMIC Cross-sectional (DHS data) Range = 15–49 0–12 months 21 countries 3
 Ross [9] 2001 1991–1996 27 countries Cross-sectional (DHS data) Range = 15–49 0–12 months 27 countries 3
 Pasha [8] 2015 2011–2012 India, Pakistan, Zambia, Kenya, Guatemala Prospective cohort Range = < 20 to ≥30 6 weeks 36,687 mCPR, unmet need, birth spacing & limiting 3
 Hounton [52] 2015 2004–2013 Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria Cross-sectional (DHS data) Range = 15–49 3 months 3 countries 3
  1. Note: DHS (demographic and health survey), FGD (focus group discussion), MCHIP (maternal and child health integrated program), NA (not applicable), NS (not specified), PP (postpartum period),
  2. RCT (randomized controlled trial)
  3. a Age at enrollment
  4. b Total modified Newcastle-Ottawa risk of bias scores for the studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Scoring were done based on the (i) sample representativeness; (ii) sample size; (iii) non-respondents, (iv) ascertainment of mCPR/reproductive intention/unmet need; and (v) quality of descriptive statistics reporting. Total scores range from 0 to 5. For the total score grouping, studies were judged to be of low risk of bias (≥3 points) or high risk of bias (< 3 points)