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Table 3 Self-reported experience of respectful care during institutional childbirth

From: Understanding mistreatment during institutional delivery in Northeast Nigeria: a mixed-method study

MainManifestations/indicatorsN = 342
Dimensions %(95%CI)
Health system conditions and constraintsPoor physical condition of facilities (dirty delivery room)27 (12–49)
Staffing shortages (e.g. not enough staff) during labour and delivery24 (11–44)
Supply constraints (e.g. essential medicines and supply not available)13 (7–21)
Lack of privacy (e.g. feeling of being exposed during delivery)15 (4–42)
Lack of redress5 (2–11)
Bribery and extortion during facility birth1 (0–3)
Feeling of unclear fee structures (e.g. lack of visible price list)19 (7–44)
Feeling of unreasonable requests by health workers19 (7–44)
Experience of any abuse related to health system conditions and constraints50 (31–70)
Poor rapport between women and providersPoor communication with the BA during labour and delivery15 (5–37)
Dismissal of woman (companion) concerns during labour and delivery7 (3–14)
Had language and interpretation issues during labour and delivery3 (1–5)
Poor staff attitudes during labour and delivery9 (5–16)
Lack of supportive care from health workers18 (6–43)
Denial or lack of birth companions during labour and delivery28 (14–49)
Being treated as passive participants during childbirth7 (2–27)
Denial of food, fluids, or mobility during labour and delivery4 (1–18)
Lack of respect for preferred birth positions13 (8–22)
Denial of safe traditional practices5 (1–15)
Detained in a facility for failure to pay for services6 (1–21)
Experience of any abuse related to poor rapport between women and providers46 (24–69)
Failure to meet professional standards of careLack of informed consent process (e.g. examine without permission)25 (11–47)
Breach of confidentiality (women private information shared)1 (1–2)
Painful vaginal exams (refusal to provide pain relief)18 (7–41)
Neglect, abandonment, or long delays (Ignored when help is needed)8 (5–13)
Skilled attendant absent at time of delivery18 (6–32)
Performance of unconsented surgical operations2 (1–7)
Experience of any abuse related to failure to meet professional standards of care44 (24–66)
Physical abuseBeing beaten, pushed, pinched, slapped or poked3 (2–4)
Physically restrained, tied or gagged during labour and delivery1 (0–3)
Experience of any physical abuse3 (2–5)
Verbal abuseHarsh or rude language, judgmental or accusatory comments10 (6–18)
Threats of withholding treatment or blamed for poor birth outcomes6 (3–12)
Experience of any verbal abuse11 (6–20)
Sexual abuseSexual abuse touched inapproachably or raped0
Any sexual abuse0
Stigma & discriminationDiscriminated against based on ethnicity, religion, income, disease0
Experience of any abuse related to discrimination0
Experience of any abuse66 (45–82)